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Separations 2017, 4(4), 34; doi:10.3390/separations4040034

Determination of the Biocide Econea® in Artificial Seawater by Solid Phase Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

1
Department of Applied Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
2
AkzoNobel, Stoneygate Lane, Felling Gateshead, Tyne & Wear NE10 0JY, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 19 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatographic Techniques for Food and Environmental Samples)
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Abstract

Econea®, or 4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile, is a new type of environmentally friendly anti-fouling compound used in the immersed coatings of commercial sea going vessels. This paper reports the development of a new analytical method to directly detect the active biocide Econea® in an artificial sea water matrix using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The developed method is both rapid and sensitive, with a limit of detection of 0.05 μg/L and a limit of quantitation of 0.17 μg/L in artificial seawater. The subsequent developed method was then applied to investigate the biocide’s release from a commercially available Econea® containing paint immersed in artificial sea water over a 45-day period. It was found that the average release rate of Econea® from this paint was 4.3 ± 0.6 μg cm−2 d−1. View Full-Text
Keywords: Econea®; 4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile; paint; artificial seawater; LC-MS Econea®; 4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile; paint; artificial seawater; LC-MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Downs, R.A.; Dean, J.R.; Downer, A.; Perry, J.J. Determination of the Biocide Econea® in Artificial Seawater by Solid Phase Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Separations 2017, 4, 34.

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