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Special Issue "State-of-the-Art Sensors in Canada 2014"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "State-of-the-Art Sensors Technologies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. M. Jamal Deen (Website)

Electrical and Computer Enginering, ITB 104, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1, Canada
Interests: microelectronics; nanoelectronics and opto-electronics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a comprehensive overview on the state-of-the-art sensors technology of Canada. Research articles are invited, which will provide a consolidated, up-to-date perspective in this area. The Special Issue will publish full research, review, and other highly-rated manuscripts addressing the above topic.

Prof. Dr. M. Jamal Deen
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • biosensors
  • chemical sensors
  • physical sensors
  • sensor networks
  • remote sensors

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Energy Efficient EEG Acquisition for a Wireless Body Area Network
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 15729-15748; doi:10.3390/s140915729
Received: 28 March 2014 / Revised: 8 July 2014 / Accepted: 25 July 2014 / Published: 25 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of [...] Read more.
We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors in Canada 2014)
Open AccessArticle Efficient Sensor Placement Optimization Using Gradient Descent and Probabilistic Coverage
Sensors 2014, 14(8), 15525-15552; doi:10.3390/s140815525
Received: 20 June 2014 / Revised: 8 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We are proposing an adaptation of the gradient descent method to optimize the position and orientation of sensors for the sensor placement problem. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the combination of gradient descent optimization with a realistic model, which [...] Read more.
We are proposing an adaptation of the gradient descent method to optimize the position and orientation of sensors for the sensor placement problem. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the combination of gradient descent optimization with a realistic model, which considers both the topography of the environment and a set of sensors with directional probabilistic sensing. The performance of this approach is compared with two other black box optimization methods over area coverage and processing time. Results show that our proposed method produces competitive results on smaller maps and superior results on larger maps, while requiring much less computation than the other optimization methods to which it has been compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors in Canada 2014)
Open AccessArticle Stability Analysis for a Multi-Camera Photogrammetric System
Sensors 2014, 14(8), 15084-15112; doi:10.3390/s140815084
Received: 6 June 2014 / Revised: 7 August 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Consumer-grade digital cameras suffer from geometrical instability that may cause problems when used in photogrammetric applications. This paper provides a comprehensive review of this issue of interior orientation parameter variation over time, it explains the common ways used for coping with the [...] Read more.
Consumer-grade digital cameras suffer from geometrical instability that may cause problems when used in photogrammetric applications. This paper provides a comprehensive review of this issue of interior orientation parameter variation over time, it explains the common ways used for coping with the issue, and describes the existing methods for performing stability analysis for a single camera. The paper then points out the lack of coverage of stability analysis for multi-camera systems, suggests a modification of the collinearity model to be used for the calibration of an entire photogrammetric system, and proposes three methods for system stability analysis. The proposed methods explore the impact of the changes in interior orientation and relative orientation/mounting parameters on the reconstruction process. Rather than relying on ground truth in real datasets to check the system calibration stability, the proposed methods are simulation-based. Experiment results are shown, where a multi-camera photogrammetric system was calibrated three times, and stability analysis was performed on the system calibration parameters from the three sessions. The proposed simulation-based methods provided results that were compatible with a real-data based approach for evaluating the impact of changes in the system calibration parameters on the three-dimensional reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors in Canada 2014)
Open AccessArticle Development of a PET Scanner for Simultaneously Imaging Small Animals with MRI and PET
Sensors 2014, 14(8), 14654-14671; doi:10.3390/s140814654
Received: 4 April 2014 / Revised: 4 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 July 2014 / Published: 12 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3890 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and staging of cancer. Combined PET and X-ray computed tomography (PET-CT) scanners are now the modality of choice in cancer treatment planning. More recently, the combination of PET [...] Read more.
Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and staging of cancer. Combined PET and X-ray computed tomography (PET-CT) scanners are now the modality of choice in cancer treatment planning. More recently, the combination of PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being explored in many sites. Combining PET and MRI has presented many challenges since the photo-multiplier tubes (PMT) in PET do not function in high magnetic fields, and conventional PET detectors distort MRI images. Solid state light sensors like avalanche photo-diodes (APDs) and more recently silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) are much less sensitive to magnetic fields thus easing the compatibility issues. This paper presents the results of a group of Canadian scientists who are developing a PET detector ring which fits inside a high field small animal MRI scanner with the goal of providing simultaneous PET and MRI images of small rodents used in pre-clinical medical research. We discuss the evolution of both the crystal blocks (which detect annihilation photons from positron decay) and the SiPM array performance in the last four years which together combine to deliver significant system performance in terms of speed, energy and timing resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors in Canada 2014)
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Open AccessArticle A Comprehensive Review of Sensors and Instrumentation Methods in Devices for Musical Expression
Sensors 2014, 14(8), 13556-13591; doi:10.3390/s140813556
Received: 17 May 2014 / Revised: 4 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 25 July 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Digital Musical Instruments (DMIs) are musical instruments typically composed of a control surface where user interaction is measured by sensors whose values are mapped to sound synthesis algorithms. These instruments have gained interest among skilled musicians and performers in the last decades [...] Read more.
Digital Musical Instruments (DMIs) are musical instruments typically composed of a control surface where user interaction is measured by sensors whose values are mapped to sound synthesis algorithms. These instruments have gained interest among skilled musicians and performers in the last decades leading to artistic practices including musical performance, interactive installations and dance. The creation of DMIs typically involves several areas, among them: arts, design and engineering. The balance between these areas is an essential task in DMI design so that the resulting instruments are aesthetically appealing, robust, and allow responsive, accurate and repeatable sensing. In this paper, we review the use of sensors in the DMI community as manifested in the proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME 2009–2013). Focusing on the sensor technologies and signal conditioning techniques used by the NIME community. Although it has been claimed that specifications for artistic tools are harder than those for military applications, this study raises a paradox showing that in most of the cases, DMIs are based on a few basic sensors types and unsophisticated engineering solutions, not taking advantage of more advanced sensing, instrumentation and signal processing techniques that could dramatically improve their response. We aim to raise awareness of limitations of any engineering solution and to assert the benefits of advanced electronics instrumentation design in DMIs. For this, we propose the use of specialized sensors such as strain gages, advanced conditioning circuits and signal processing tools such as sensor fusion. We believe that careful electronic instrumentation design may lead to more responsive instruments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors in Canada 2014)
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Open AccessArticle A Medical Cloud-Based Platform for Respiration Rate Measurement and Hierarchical Classification of Breath Disorders
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11204-11224; doi:10.3390/s140611204
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 20 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The measurement of human respiratory signals is crucial in cyberbiological systems. A disordered breathing pattern can be the first symptom of different physiological, mechanical, or psychological dysfunctions. Therefore, a real-time monitoring of the respiration patterns, as well as respiration rate is a [...] Read more.
The measurement of human respiratory signals is crucial in cyberbiological systems. A disordered breathing pattern can be the first symptom of different physiological, mechanical, or psychological dysfunctions. Therefore, a real-time monitoring of the respiration patterns, as well as respiration rate is a critical need in medical applications. There are several methods for respiration rate measurement. However, despite their accuracy, these methods are expensive and could not be integrated in a body sensor network. In this work, we present a real-time cloud-based platform for both monitoring the respiration rate and breath pattern classification, remotely. The proposed system is designed particularly for patients with breathing problems (e.g., respiratory complications after surgery) or sleep disorders. Our system includes calibrated accelerometer sensor, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and cloud-computing model. We also suggest a procedure to improve the accuracy of respiration rate for patients at rest positions. The overall error in the respiration rate calculation is obtained 0.53% considering SPR-BTA spirometer as the reference. Five types of respiration disorders, Bradapnea, Tachypnea, Cheyn-stokes, Kaussmal, and Biot’s breathing are classified based on hierarchical Support Vector Machine (SVM) with seven different features. We have evaluated the performance of the proposed classification while it is individualized to every subject (case 1) as well as considering all subjects (case 2). Since the selection of kernel function is a key factor to decide SVM’s performance, in this paper three different kernel functions are evaluated. The experiments are conducted with 11 subjects and the average accuracy of 94.52% for case 1 and the accuracy of 81.29% for case 2 are achieved based on Radial Basis Function (RBF). Finally, a performance evaluation has been done for normal and impaired subjects considering sensitivity, specificity and G-mean parameters of different kernel functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors in Canada 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Precise Calibration of a GNSS Antenna Array for Adaptive Beamforming Applications
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 9669-9691; doi:10.3390/s140609669
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 23 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) antenna arrays for applications such as interference counter-measure, attitude determination and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement is attracting significant attention. However, precise antenna array calibration remains a major challenge. This paper proposes a new method [...] Read more.
The use of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) antenna arrays for applications such as interference counter-measure, attitude determination and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement is attracting significant attention. However, precise antenna array calibration remains a major challenge. This paper proposes a new method for calibrating a GNSS antenna array using live signals and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Moreover, a second method that employs the calibration results for the estimation of steering vectors is also proposed. These two methods are applied to the receiver in two modes, namely calibration and operation. In the calibration mode, a two-stage optimization for precise calibration is used; in the first stage, constant uncertainties are estimated while in the second stage, the dependency of each antenna element gain and phase patterns to the received signal direction of arrival (DOA) is considered for refined calibration. In the operation mode, a low-complexity iterative and fast-converging method is applied to estimate the satellite signal steering vectors using the calibration results. This makes the technique suitable for real-time applications employing a precisely calibrated antenna array. The proposed calibration method is applied to GPS signals to verify its applicability and assess its performance. Furthermore, the data set is used to evaluate the proposed iterative method in the receiver operation mode for two different applications, namely attitude determination and SNR enhancement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors in Canada 2014)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Raman Spectroscopy for In-Line Water Quality Monitoring—Instrumentation and Potential
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17275-17303; doi:10.3390/s140917275
Received: 1 July 2014 / Revised: 7 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (347 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Worldwide, the access to safe drinking water is a huge problem. In fact, the number of persons without safe drinking water is increasing, even though it is an essential ingredient for human health and development. The enormity of the problem also makes [...] Read more.
Worldwide, the access to safe drinking water is a huge problem. In fact, the number of persons without safe drinking water is increasing, even though it is an essential ingredient for human health and development. The enormity of the problem also makes it a critical environmental and public health issue. Therefore, there is a critical need for easy-to-use, compact and sensitive techniques for water quality monitoring. Raman spectroscopy has been a very powerful technique to characterize chemical composition and has been applied to many areas, including chemistry, food, material science or pharmaceuticals. The development of advanced Raman techniques and improvements in instrumentation, has significantly improved the performance of modern Raman spectrometers so that it can now be used for detection of low concentrations of chemicals such as in-line monitoring of chemical and pharmaceutical contaminants in water. This paper briefly introduces the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy, reviews the development of Raman instrumentations and discusses advanced and potential Raman techniques for in-line water quality monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors in Canada 2014)
Open AccessReview Frequency-Shifted Interferometry — A Versatile Fiber-Optic Sensing Technique
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 10977-11000; doi:10.3390/s140610977
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 24 May 2014 / Accepted: 16 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fiber-optic sensing is a field that is developing at a fast pace. Novel fiber-optic sensor designs and sensing principles constantly open doors for new opportunities. In this paper, we review a fiber-optic sensing technique developed in our research group called frequency-shifted interferometry [...] Read more.
Fiber-optic sensing is a field that is developing at a fast pace. Novel fiber-optic sensor designs and sensing principles constantly open doors for new opportunities. In this paper, we review a fiber-optic sensing technique developed in our research group called frequency-shifted interferometry (FSI). This technique uses a continuous-wave light source, an optical frequency shifter, and a slow detector. We discuss the operation principles of several FSI implementations and show their applications in fiber length and dispersion measurement, locating weak reflections along a fiber link, fiber-optic sensor multiplexing, and high-sensitivity cavity ring-down measurement. Detailed analysis of FSI system parameters is also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors in Canada 2014)

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