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Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17275-17303; doi:10.3390/s140917275

Raman Spectroscopy for In-Line Water Quality Monitoring—Instrumentation and Potential

1
School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
2
Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 Canada
3
Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
4
Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2014 / Revised: 7 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors in Canada 2014)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [347 KB, uploaded 17 September 2014]   |  

Abstract

Worldwide, the access to safe drinking water is a huge problem. In fact, the number of persons without safe drinking water is increasing, even though it is an essential ingredient for human health and development. The enormity of the problem also makes it a critical environmental and public health issue. Therefore, there is a critical need for easy-to-use, compact and sensitive techniques for water quality monitoring. Raman spectroscopy has been a very powerful technique to characterize chemical composition and has been applied to many areas, including chemistry, food, material science or pharmaceuticals. The development of advanced Raman techniques and improvements in instrumentation, has significantly improved the performance of modern Raman spectrometers so that it can now be used for detection of low concentrations of chemicals such as in-line monitoring of chemical and pharmaceutical contaminants in water. This paper briefly introduces the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy, reviews the development of Raman instrumentations and discusses advanced and potential Raman techniques for in-line water quality monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; water monitoring; surface enhanced Raman scattering Raman spectroscopy; water monitoring; surface enhanced Raman scattering
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Z.; Deen, M.J.; Kumar, S.; Selvaganapathy, P.R. Raman Spectroscopy for In-Line Water Quality Monitoring—Instrumentation and Potential. Sensors 2014, 14, 17275-17303.

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