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Special Issue "Remote Sensing in Seismology"

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A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Salvatore Stramondo

Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, National Earthquake Center, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Via di Vigna Murata 605, 00143 Rome, Italy
Fax: +39 06 51860507
Interests: remote sensing; synthetic aperture radar interferometry; multitemporal SAR interferometry; remote sensing for natural disaster mitigation and monitoring

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Satellite Remote Sensing has demonstrated to be a reliable tool for natural disasters studies and to detect the surface effects in terms of deformation and damage.

In particular, Seismology represents one of the fieldworks where SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) and Very High Resolution (VHR) Optical Remote Sensing obtained the higher number of results.

Since early ’90 the capabilities of SAR Interferometry (InSAR) technique have been exploited to study the surface displacement due to moderate-to-strong earthquakes. Recently SAR and Optical image correlation tools have been developed to measure the surface displacements based on co-registration of satellite images.

Furthermore, multitemporal InSAR techniques have been applied to detect and measure slow surface movements within high seismic risk areas thus providing a possible monitoring tool for interseismic surface deformation.

Concerning the effects of strong earthquakes to manufactures, Optical data can also furnish valuable information on settlement conditions after an earthquake. The spatial resolution of satellite optical sensors is rapidly increasing in the last years, reaching less than 1m (Ikonos, Quickbird, Eros satellites), becoming an effective tool for detecting changes of individual buildings.

Dr. Salvatore Stramondo
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • remote sensing
  • seismology
  • earthquakes
  • SAR
  • InSAR
  • VHR

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Study of the Correlation between Earthquakes and NOAA Satellite Energetic Particle Bursts
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(9), 2170-2184; doi:10.3390/rs2092170
Received: 16 July 2010 / Revised: 6 September 2010 / Accepted: 7 September 2010 / Published: 15 September 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (704 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the last two decades, potentially interesting phenomena in the ionosphere-magnetosphere transition region have been studied; anomalous particle fluxes detected by several space experiments and correlated with earthquakes. These phenomena are characterized by short-term increases in high energy particle counting rates, called [...] Read more.
Over the last two decades, potentially interesting phenomena in the ionosphere-magnetosphere transition region have been studied; anomalous particle fluxes detected by several space experiments and correlated with earthquakes. These phenomena are characterized by short-term increases in high energy particle counting rates, called particle bursts. In this work we have used the NOAA electron flux data to study the time correlation between particle rate fluctuations and earthquakes. With respect to previous studies, we have analyzed contiguous particle bursts in order to distinguish correlations with seismic activity from seasonal variations of particle flux and solar activity. Earthquake clustering was initially included to study the types and causes of false correlations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Seismology)
Open AccessArticle Building Damage Estimation by Integration of Seismic Intensity Information and Satellite L-band SAR Imagery
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(9), 2111-2126; doi:10.3390/rs2092111
Received: 20 July 2010 / Revised: 4 August 2010 / Accepted: 30 August 2010 / Published: 8 September 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For a quick and stable estimation of earthquake damaged buildings worldwide, using Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) loaded on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) satellite, a model combining the usage of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and [...] Read more.
For a quick and stable estimation of earthquake damaged buildings worldwide, using Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) loaded on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) satellite, a model combining the usage of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)-scale seismic intensity is proposed. In order to expand the existing C-band SAR based damage estimation model into L-band SAR, this paper rebuilds a likelihood function for severe damage ratio, on the basis of dataset from Japanese Earth Resource Satellite-1 (JERS-1)/SAR (L-band SAR) images observed during the 1995 Kobe earthquake and its detailed ground truth data. The model which integrates the fragility functions of building damage in terms of seismic intensity and the proposed likelihood function is then applied to PALSAR images taken over the areas affected by the 2007 earthquake in Pisco, Peru. The accuracy of the proposed damage estimation model is examined by comparing the results of the analyses with field investigations and/or interpretation of high-resolution satellite images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Seismology)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Use of Remote Sensing Data and GIS Tools for Seismic Hazard Assessment for Shallow Oilfields and its Impact on the Settlements at Masjed-i-Soleiman Area, Zagros Mountains, Iran
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(5), 1364-1377; doi:10.3390/rs2051364
Received: 10 March 2010 / Revised: 15 April 2010 / Accepted: 16 April 2010 / Published: 12 May 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (3128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Masjed-i-Soleiman (MIS) is situated in the northern part of the Dezful embayment, which is in the Zagros fold–thrust belt with high seismic activities. MIS faces a shallow buried anticline, formed by the shallowest oilfield with a thick gas cap. The cap rocks of this oilfield are highly fractured, which has resulted in leakages from the gas cap. In this paper, we have used remote sensing techniques and image interpretation for the identification of the Niayesh, Lahbari, Andika and MIS fault zones in the studied area. Further, the study exploited seismic potential mapping using the remote sensing techniques. The relationships between the structural controls and localized gas leakage are assessed within the GIS environment. Additionally, field observation data corroborated that the leakages (and seepages) are smashed within the intersection of Niayesh and MIS fault zone, which belongs to the high fractured hinge zone of the MIS anticline. As a result, the reactivation of these active faults may cause large earthquakes with a maximum magnitude of between 6.23 < Ms < 7.05 (Richter scale) and maximum horizontal acceleration 0.26 < a < 0.55 g. Finally, the authors concluded that this anticipated earthquake may cause large scale fracturing of cap rocks, releasing a large volume of H2S gas from the uppermost layer of the reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Seismology)
Open AccessArticle Upliftment Estimation of the Zagros Transverse Fault in Iran Using Geoinformatics Technology
Remote Sens. 2009, 1(4), 1240-1256; doi:10.3390/rs1041240
Received: 22 October 2009 / Revised: 25 November 2009 / Accepted: 30 November 2009 / Published: 8 December 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (833 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Izeh fault zone is a transverse fault zone with dextral strike slip (and some reverse component) in the Zagros Mountains (Iran). It causes some structural deformations. This fault zone is acting as eastern boundary of Dezful Embayment and forms subsidence of [...] Read more.
The Izeh fault zone is a transverse fault zone with dextral strike slip (and some reverse component) in the Zagros Mountains (Iran). It causes some structural deformations. This fault zone is acting as eastern boundary of Dezful Embayment and forms subsidence of the embayment. The fault has been recognized using remote sensing techniques in conjunction with surface and subsurface analyses. The stratigraphic columns have been prepared in 3D form using Geographical Information System (GIS) tools on the basis of structural styles and thickness of lithologic units. Height differences for erosion levels have been calculated in stratigraphic columns with respect to the subsidence in the Dezful Embayment, which is related to Izeh zone. These height differences have been estimated to be 5,430 m in the central part (and 5,844 m in the northern part) from the Eocene to recent times. This study shows that comparison of the same erosion levels in Asmari-Pabdeh formation boundaries for interior and eastern block of the Izeh fault zone with the absolute uplifting due to the fault activity which is about 533 m per million years in the Izeh zone. The present study reveals that subtracting the absolute uplifting from total subsidence; the real subsidence of Dezful embayment from Eocene to Recent is 0.13 mm/year. The mean rate of uplifting along the Izeh fault zone is 0.015 mm/year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Seismology)
Open AccessArticle Detection and Monitoring of Active Faults in Urban Environments: Time Series Interferometry on the Cities of Patras and Pyrgos (Peloponnese, Greece)
Remote Sens. 2009, 1(4), 676-696; doi:10.3390/rs1040676
Received: 26 August 2009 / Revised: 21 September 2009 / Accepted: 25 September 2009 / Published: 30 September 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Monitoring of active faults in urban areas is of great importance, providing useful information to assess seismic hazards and risks. The present study concerns the monitoring of the potential ground deformation caused by the active tectonism in the cities of Patras and Pyrgos in Western Greece. A PS interferometric analysis technique was applied using a rich data–set of ERS–1 & 2 SLC images. The results of the interferometric analysis were compared with the tectonic maps of the two cities. Patras show clearer uplift–subsidence results due to the more distinct fault pattern and intense deformation compared to the Pyrgos area, where more diffused deformation is observed, with no significant displacements on the surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Seismology)

Review

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Open AccessReview Satellite Remote Sensing in Seismology. A Review
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(1), 124-150; doi:10.3390/rs2010124
Received: 15 October 2009 / Revised: 18 December 2009 / Accepted: 23 December 2009 / Published: 30 December 2009
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (10396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A wide range of satellite methods is applied now in seismology. The first applications of satellite data for earthquake exploration were initiated in the ‘70s, when active faults were mapped on satellite images. It was a pure and simple extrapolation of airphoto [...] Read more.
A wide range of satellite methods is applied now in seismology. The first applications of satellite data for earthquake exploration were initiated in the ‘70s, when active faults were mapped on satellite images. It was a pure and simple extrapolation of airphoto geological interpretation methods into space. The modern embodiment of this method is alignment analysis. Time series of alignments on the Earth's surface are investigated before and after the earthquake. A further application of satellite data in seismology is related with geophysical methods. Electromagnetic methods have about the same long history of application for seismology. Stable statistical estimations of ionosphere-lithosphere relation were obtained based on satellite ionozonds. The most successful current project "DEMETER" shows impressive results. Satellite thermal infra-red data were applied for earthquake research in the next step. Numerous results have confirmed previous observations of thermal anomalies on the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes. A modern trend is the application of the outgoing long-wave radiation for earthquake research. In ‘80s a new technology—satellite radar interferometry—opened a new page. Spectacular pictures of co-seismic deformations were presented. Current researches are moving in the direction of pre-earthquake deformation detection. GPS technology is also widely used in seismology both for ionosphere sounding and for ground movement detection. Satellite gravimetry has demonstrated its first very impressive results on the example of the catastrophic Indonesian earthquake in 2004. Relatively new applications of remote sensing for seismology as atmospheric sounding, gas observations, and cloud analysis are considered as possible candidates for applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Seismology)

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