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Satellite Remote Sensing in Seismology. A Review
Scientific Research Centre for Ecological Safety, Russian Academy of Sciences, 18, Korpusnaya st., St-Petersburg, 197110, Russia
Received: 15 October 2009; in revised form: 18 December 2009 / Accepted: 23 December 2009 / Published: 30 December 2009
Abstract: A wide range of satellite methods is applied now in seismology. The first applications of satellite data for earthquake exploration were initiated in the ‘70s, when active faults were mapped on satellite images. It was a pure and simple extrapolation of airphoto geological interpretation methods into space. The modern embodiment of this method is alignment analysis. Time series of alignments on the Earth's surface are investigated before and after the earthquake. A further application of satellite data in seismology is related with geophysical methods. Electromagnetic methods have about the same long history of application for seismology. Stable statistical estimations of ionosphere-lithosphere relation were obtained based on satellite ionozonds. The most successful current project "DEMETER" shows impressive results. Satellite thermal infra-red data were applied for earthquake research in the next step. Numerous results have confirmed previous observations of thermal anomalies on the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes. A modern trend is the application of the outgoing long-wave radiation for earthquake research. In ‘80s a new technology—satellite radar interferometry—opened a new page. Spectacular pictures of co-seismic deformations were presented. Current researches are moving in the direction of pre-earthquake deformation detection. GPS technology is also widely used in seismology both for ionosphere sounding and for ground movement detection. Satellite gravimetry has demonstrated its first very impressive results on the example of the catastrophic Indonesian earthquake in 2004. Relatively new applications of remote sensing for seismology as atmospheric sounding, gas observations, and cloud analysis are considered as possible candidates for applications.
Keywords: remote sensing; seismology; earthquakes
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Tronin, A.A. Satellite Remote Sensing in Seismology. A Review. Remote Sens. 2010, 2, 124-150.
Tronin AA. Satellite Remote Sensing in Seismology. A Review. Remote Sensing. 2010; 2(1):124-150.
Tronin, Andrew A. 2010. "Satellite Remote Sensing in Seismology. A Review." Remote Sens. 2, no. 1: 124-150.