E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Biologics"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Pharmaceuticals (ISSN 1424-8247).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Christine Brezden-Masley

St. Michael’s Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Room 2046, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Interests: cytotoxic chemotherapeutics; molecular-targeted biologics; breast cancer pathophysiology; diagnostic imaging; patient safety

Special Issue Information

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmaceuticals is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • novel molecular targets of cancer pathogenesist
  • tumour biomarkers
  • novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • molecular targeted monoclonal antibodies
  • targets of tumorigenesis
  • pathways of inhibition of tumorigenesis

Published Papers (8 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Loss of Response to Long-Term Infliximab Therapy in Children with Crohn’s Disease
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(10), 1322-1334; doi:10.3390/ph6101322
Received: 2 July 2013 / Revised: 2 October 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 16 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Secondary loss of response (LoR) often precludes further use of infliximab in children with Crohn’s disease. Immunomodulators may reduce the incidence of LoR but their combination with infliximab presents safety concerns. We aimed to determine the long-term durability of infliximab response in [...] Read more.
Secondary loss of response (LoR) often precludes further use of infliximab in children with Crohn’s disease. Immunomodulators may reduce the incidence of LoR but their combination with infliximab presents safety concerns. We aimed to determine the long-term durability of infliximab response in paediatric Crohn’s, effect of immunomodulators on LoR, and secondarily the effect of infliximab on growth. We retrospectively audited patients on maintenance infliximab at a single centre. Data included height and weight, Paediatric Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (PCDAI), and immunomodulator use. 71 children (32% female, mean age 14.4 years) had been commenced on maintenance infliximab before July 2011. 89% had been on immunomodulators concurrently with infliximab. LoR occurred in 20 (28%), with a median time to LoR of 4.31 years. LoR was significantly increased in children who did not enter remission (PCDAI ≤ 10) after induction (p < 0.05). LoR occurred more frequently in the 72% who ceased immunomodulators, but this failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.300). Height and weight SDS improved significantly on infliximab. Infliximab is a durable long-term therapy for paediatric Crohn’s refractory to conventional therapy. A large-magnitude increase in the rate of loss of response after immunomodulator cessation was not observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologics)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of N-Linked Glycosylation in a Monoclonal Antibody Produced in NS0 Cells Using Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(3), 393-406; doi:10.3390/ph6030393
Received: 29 January 2013 / Accepted: 13 March 2013 / Published: 21 March 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The N-linked glycosylation in recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAb) occurs at Asn297 on the Fc region in the CH2 domain. Glycosylation heterogeneities have been well documented to affect biological activities such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) through their [...] Read more.
The N-linked glycosylation in recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAb) occurs at Asn297 on the Fc region in the CH2 domain. Glycosylation heterogeneities have been well documented to affect biological activities such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) through their interaction with Fc-receptors. Hence, it is critical to monitor and characterize the N-linked glycosylation profile in a therapeutic protein such as a mAb for product consistency. In one approach, the glycans are first released from the mAb using an enzyme specific digestion, such as Protein N-Glycosidase F (PNGase) and subsequently they are labeled using a fluorophore, for example, 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (APTS) . Here we have applied this approach and used Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) to analyze a recombinant mAb produced in murine myeloma (NS0) cells. The technique provides short analysis times, efficient separations, and high sensitivity. CE-LIF peak identification was done by a combination of glycan standards and treatment with various exoglycosidases. Furthermore, the APTS-labeled glycans were also analyzed using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to aid identification of minor peaks by sample collection and off-line mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologics)
Open AccessArticle 89Zr-Radiolabeled Trastuzumab Imaging in Orthotopic and Metastatic Breast Tumors
Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(1), 79-93; doi:10.3390/ph5010079
Received: 16 November 2011 / Revised: 14 December 2011 / Accepted: 22 December 2011 / Published: 5 January 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) is overexpressed in 20–30% of breast cancers and is associated with tumor growth, angiogenesis, and development of distant metastases. Trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, is used for the treatment of HER2 positive breast cancer [...] Read more.
The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) is overexpressed in 20–30% of breast cancers and is associated with tumor growth, angiogenesis, and development of distant metastases. Trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, is used for the treatment of HER2 positive breast cancer and clinical efficacy of this agent is dependent on HER2 expression. Targeted PET imaging of HER2 with radiolabeled trastuzumab may be used to determine HER2 expression levels and guide therapy selection. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a facile 89Zr-trastuzumab preparation method that can be efficiently applied for clinical grade production. Also, relative HER2 expression levels in orthotopic and metastatic breast cancer models were assessed by PET imaging using the 89Zr-trastuzumab produced by this simpler method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologics)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Evolution of Biologics Screening Technologies
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(5), 681-688; doi:10.3390/ph6050681
Received: 5 February 2013 / Revised: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Screening for biologics, in particular antibody drugs, has evolved significantly over the last 20 years. Initially, the screening processes and technologies from many years experience with small molecules were adopted and modified to suit the needs of biologics discovery. Since then, antibody [...] Read more.
Screening for biologics, in particular antibody drugs, has evolved significantly over the last 20 years. Initially, the screening processes and technologies from many years experience with small molecules were adopted and modified to suit the needs of biologics discovery. Since then, antibody drug discovery has matured significantly and is today investing earlier in new technologies that commercial suppliers are now developing specifically to meet the growing needs of large molecule screening. Here, we review the evolution of screening and automation technologies employed in antibody discovery and highlight the benefits that these changes have brought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologics)
Figures

Open AccessReview Advances in Mammalian Cell Line Development Technologies for Recombinant Protein Production
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(5), 579-603; doi:10.3390/ph6050579
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 10 April 2013 / Published: 26 April 2013
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
From 2006 to 2011, an average of 15 novel recombinant protein therapeutics have been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) annually. In addition, the expiration of blockbuster biologics has also spurred the emergence of biosimilars. The increasing numbers of innovator [...] Read more.
From 2006 to 2011, an average of 15 novel recombinant protein therapeutics have been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) annually. In addition, the expiration of blockbuster biologics has also spurred the emergence of biosimilars. The increasing numbers of innovator biologic products and biosimilars have thus fuelled the demand of production cell lines with high productivity. Currently, mammalian cell line development technologies used by most biopharmaceutical companies are based on either the methotrexate (MTX) amplification technology or the glutamine synthetase (GS) system. With both systems, the cell clones obtained are highly heterogeneous, as a result of random genome integration by the gene of interest and the gene amplification process. Consequently, large numbers of cell clones have to be screened to identify rare stable high producer cell clones. As such, the cell line development process typically requires 6 to 12 months and is a time, capital and labour intensive process. This article reviews established advances in protein expression and clone screening which are the core technologies in mammalian cell line development. Advancements in these component technologies are vital to improve the speed and efficiency of generating robust and highly productive cell line for large scale production of protein therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologics)
Open AccessReview Biologics in Dermatology
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(4), 557-578; doi:10.3390/ph6040557
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 26 February 2013 / Accepted: 7 April 2013 / Published: 17 April 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Skin and subcutaneous diseases affect millions of people worldwide, causing significant morbidity. Biologics are becoming increasingly useful for the treatment of many skin diseases, particularly as alternatives for patients who have failed to tolerate or respond to conventional systemic therapies. Biological therapies [...] Read more.
Skin and subcutaneous diseases affect millions of people worldwide, causing significant morbidity. Biologics are becoming increasingly useful for the treatment of many skin diseases, particularly as alternatives for patients who have failed to tolerate or respond to conventional systemic therapies. Biological therapies provide a targeted approach to treatment through interaction with specific components of the underlying immune and inflammatory disease processes. This review article examines the increasing evidence base for biologics in dermatology, including well-established treatments and novel agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologics)
Open AccessReview Inactivation of Caliciviruses
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(3), 358-392; doi:10.3390/ph6030358
Received: 28 January 2013 / Revised: 20 February 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 21 March 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Caliciviridae family of viruses contains clinically important human and animal pathogens, as well as vesivirus 2117, a known contaminant of biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes employing Chinese hamster cells. An extensive literature exists for inactivation of various animal caliciviruses, especially feline calicivirus and [...] Read more.
The Caliciviridae family of viruses contains clinically important human and animal pathogens, as well as vesivirus 2117, a known contaminant of biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes employing Chinese hamster cells. An extensive literature exists for inactivation of various animal caliciviruses, especially feline calicivirus and murine norovirus. The caliciviruses are susceptible to wet heat inactivation at temperatures in excess of 60 °C with contact times of 30 min or greater, to UV-C inactivation at fluence ≥30 mJ/cm2, to high pressure processing >200 MPa for >5 min at 4 °C, and to certain photodynamic inactivation approaches. The enteric caliciviruses (e.g.; noroviruses) display resistance to inactivation by low pH, while the non-enteric species (e.g.; feline calicivirus) are much more susceptible. The caliciviruses are inactivated by a variety of chemicals, including alcohols, oxidizing agents, aldehydes, and β-propiolactone. As with inactivation of viruses in general, inactivation of caliciviruses by the various approaches may be matrix-, temperature-, and/or contact time-dependent. The susceptibilities of the caliciviruses to the various physical and chemical inactivation approaches are generally similar to those displayed by other small, non-enveloped viruses, with the exception that the parvoviruses and circoviruses may require higher temperatures for inactivation, while these families appear to be more susceptible to UV-C inactivation than are the caliciviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologics)
Open AccessReview On the Regulatory Approval Pathway of Biosimilar Products
Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(4), 353-368; doi:10.3390/ph5040353
Received: 20 February 2012 / Revised: 20 March 2012 / Accepted: 28 March 2012 / Published: 30 March 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (97 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biosimilars (or follow-on biologics) are a new class of medicine which enters the market subsequent to a previously approved version. They have demonstrated similarity to innovator biologic products in terms of quality, safety, and efficacy. The EMA has taken the lead in [...] Read more.
Biosimilars (or follow-on biologics) are a new class of medicine which enters the market subsequent to a previously approved version. They have demonstrated similarity to innovator biologic products in terms of quality, safety, and efficacy. The EMA has taken the lead in the regulatory approval framework for biosimilar products, and WHO has published guidelines on the evaluation of biosimilars in order to facilitate the global harmonization. Based on EMA and WHO guidelines, many other countries such as Canada, Japan and Korea have also issued their own guidance for evaluating follow-on biologics. The US FDA was authorized to approve follow-on biologics by the BPCI Act passed by the US Congress on March 23, 2010, and has just issued a draft guidance in early 2012. The basic concepts and main principles of approving biosimilars are similar among various nations, notwithstanding some differences in regard to the scope, the choice of reference product, and the data requirement. This article reviews the regulatory approval pathway of biosimilar products in different regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologics)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Pharmaceuticals Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
pharmaceuticals@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Pharmaceuticals
Back to Top