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Inactivation of Caliciviruses
RMC Pharmaceutical Solutions, Inc.; 1851 Lefthand Circle, Suite A, Longmont, CO 80501, USA
Corporate Product Biosafety, Genzyme, a Sanofi Company, 200 Crossing Boulevard, Framingham, MA 01701, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 January 2013; in revised form: 20 February 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 21 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologics
Abstract: The Caliciviridae family of viruses contains clinically important human and animal pathogens, as well as vesivirus 2117, a known contaminant of biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes employing Chinese hamster cells. An extensive literature exists for inactivation of various animal caliciviruses, especially feline calicivirus and murine norovirus. The caliciviruses are susceptible to wet heat inactivation at temperatures in excess of 60 °C with contact times of 30 min or greater, to UV-C inactivation at fluence ≥30 mJ/cm2, to high pressure processing >200 MPa for >5 min at 4 °C, and to certain photodynamic inactivation approaches. The enteric caliciviruses (e.g.; noroviruses) display resistance to inactivation by low pH, while the non-enteric species (e.g.; feline calicivirus) are much more susceptible. The caliciviruses are inactivated by a variety of chemicals, including alcohols, oxidizing agents, aldehydes, and β-propiolactone. As with inactivation of viruses in general, inactivation of caliciviruses by the various approaches may be matrix-, temperature-, and/or contact time-dependent. The susceptibilities of the caliciviruses to the various physical and chemical inactivation approaches are generally similar to those displayed by other small, non-enveloped viruses, with the exception that the parvoviruses and circoviruses may require higher temperatures for inactivation, while these families appear to be more susceptible to UV-C inactivation than are the caliciviruses.
Keywords: bovine calicivirus; canine calicivirus; chemical inactivation; feline calicivirus; human norovirus; murine norovirus; Norwalk virus; physical inactivation; San Miguel sea lion virus; vesicular exanthema of swine virus; vesivirus 2117
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Nims, R.; Plavsic, M. Inactivation of Caliciviruses. Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6, 358-392.
Nims R, Plavsic M. Inactivation of Caliciviruses. Pharmaceuticals. 2013; 6(3):358-392.
Nims, Raymond; Plavsic, Mark. 2013. "Inactivation of Caliciviruses." Pharmaceuticals 6, no. 3: 358-392.