Special Issue "Host-Parasite Interactions"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kris Chadee (Website)

Gastrointestinal Research Group, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1, Canada
Interests: Entamoeba histolytica; host-pathogen interaction in the gut; gut innate immunity; inflammation; mucosal immunology; pathogenesis and host defense; pro-inflammatory cytokines

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the resurgent of diseases that cause immunodeficiency coupled with a rapid rise in drug resistance to a variety of infectious diseases, parasitic infections are emerging and reemerging as a major problem to public health worldwide. Recent advances in host-parasite relationships have unraveled new concepts in parasite pathogenic mechanisms, host innate and immune responses and improved treatment strategies to control and/or limit infection. In this special issue, we invite investigators to submit manuscripts that address the broad diversity of parasitic problems (protozoan and helminths) related to public health issues, pathogenesis, immune responses and host defense mechanisms and emerging treatment strategies to combat parasitic infections.
We look forward to your contribution.

Prof. Dr. Kris Chadee
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • parasite
  • host defense
  • vaccine
  • pathogenesis
  • immunoregulation
  • protoza
  • helminths
  • innate immunity
  • inflammation

Published Papers (9 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-9
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Use of a Th1 Stimulator Adjuvant for Vaccination against Neospora caninum Infection in the Pregnant Mouse Model
Pathogens 2013, 2(2), 193-208; doi:10.3390/pathogens2020193
Received: 23 January 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2013 / Accepted: 19 March 2013 / Published: 27 March 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new Neospora caninum infections in cattle. A vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recNcMIC3-1-R, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins NcMIC1 and [...] Read more.
Vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new Neospora caninum infections in cattle. A vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recNcMIC3-1-R, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins NcMIC1 and NcMIC3, the rhoptry protein NcROP2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. However, the same vaccine formulation elicited a Th2-type immune response in pregnant mice and did not prevent vertical transmission or disease, neither in dams nor in offspring mice. In this study, an alternative vaccine formulation containing recNcMIC3-1-R emulsified in Freund’s incomplete adjuvant, a stimulator of the cellular immunity, was investigated. No protection against vertical transmission and cerebral infection in the pregnant mice and a very limited protective effect in the non-pregnant mice were observed. The vaccine induced a Th1-type immune response characterized by high IgG2a titres and strong IFN-γ expression, which appeared detrimental to pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Parasite Interactions)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Order of Inoculation during Heligmosomoides bakeri and Hymenolepis microstoma Coinfection Alters Parasite Life History and Host Responses
Pathogens 2013, 2(1), 130-152; doi:10.3390/pathogens2010130
Received: 19 December 2012 / Revised: 2 February 2013 / Accepted: 21 February 2013 / Published: 1 March 2013
PDF Full-text (625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parasite life history may differ during coinfection compared to single infections, and the order of infection may be an important predictor of life history traits. We subjected laboratory mice (Mus musculus) to single and coinfections with Heligmosomoides bakeri and Hymenolepis [...] Read more.
Parasite life history may differ during coinfection compared to single infections, and the order of infection may be an important predictor of life history traits. We subjected laboratory mice (Mus musculus) to single and coinfections with Heligmosomoides bakeri and Hymenolepis microstoma and measured life history traits of worms and also hepatobiliary and morphological responses by the host. We found that fewer H. bakeri larvae established, and adult worms were shorter and produced fewer eggs during a coinfection where H. microstoma occurred first. H. microstoma grew more and released more eggs after simultaneous inoculation of both parasites compared to a single H. microstoma infection, despite similar worm numbers. Mouse small intestine mass, but not length, varied with coinfection and bile duct mass was largest when H. microstoma was given alone or first. Mouse serum alkaline phosphatase levels were greatest for mice infected with H. microstoma only but did not vary with number of scolices; no change in mouse serum alanine transaminase levels was observed. Overall, the order of coinfection influenced life history traits of both H. bakeri and H. microstoma, but changes in survival, growth, and reproduction with order of inoculation were not consistent between the two parasites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Parasite Interactions)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Disruptions of Host Immunity and Inflammation by Giardia Duodenalis: Potential Consequences for Co-Infections in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract
Pathogens 2015, 4(4), 764-792; doi:10.3390/pathogens4040764
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 10 November 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, or G. lamblia) is a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that infects hundreds of millions of people annually. Research on Giardia has greatly expanded within the last few years, and our understanding of the [...] Read more.
Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, or G. lamblia) is a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that infects hundreds of millions of people annually. Research on Giardia has greatly expanded within the last few years, and our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunology on this parasite is ever increasing. At peak infection, Giardia trophozoites induce pathophysiological responses that culminate in the development of diarrheal disease. However, human data has suggested that the intestinal mucosa of Giardia-infected individuals is devoid of signs of overt intestinal inflammation, an observation that is reproduced in animal models. Thus, our understanding of host inflammatory responses to the parasite remain incompletely understood and human studies and experimental data have produced conflicting results. It is now also apparent that certain Giardia infections contain mechanisms capable of modulating their host’s immune responses. As the oral route of Giardia infection is shared with many other gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens, co-infections may often occur, especially in places with poor sanitation and/or improper treatment of drinking water. Moreover, Giardia infections may modulate host immune responses and have been found to protect against the development of diarrheal disease in developing countries. The following review summarizes our current understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms of Giardia infections and their consequences for the host, and highlights areas for future research. Potential implications of these immunomodulatory effects during GI co-infection are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Parasite Interactions)
Open AccessReview Fasciola hepatica: Histology of the Reproductive Organs and Differential Effects of Triclabendazole on Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Fluke Isolates and on Flukes from Selected Field Cases
Pathogens 2015, 4(3), 431-456; doi:10.3390/pathogens4030431
Received: 12 May 2015 / Revised: 15 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 26 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review summarises the findings of a series of studies in which the histological changes, induced in the reproductive system of Fasciola hepatica following treatment of the ovine host with the anthelmintic triclabendazole (TCBZ), were examined. A detailed description of the normal [...] Read more.
This review summarises the findings of a series of studies in which the histological changes, induced in the reproductive system of Fasciola hepatica following treatment of the ovine host with the anthelmintic triclabendazole (TCBZ), were examined. A detailed description of the normal macroscopic arrangement and histological features of the testes, ovary, vitelline tissue, Mehlis’ gland and uterus is provided to aid recognition of the drug-induced lesions, and to provide a basic model to inform similar toxicological studies on F. hepatica in the future. The production of spermatozoa and egg components represents the main energy consuming activity of the adult fluke. Thus the reproductive organs, with their high turnover of cells and secretory products, are uniquely sensitive to metabolic inhibition and sub-cellular disorganisation induced by extraneous toxic compounds. The flukes chosen for study were derived from TCBZ-sensitive (TCBZ-S) and TCBZ-resistant (TCBZ-R) isolates, the status of which had previously been proven in controlled clinical trials. For comparison, flukes collected from flocks where TCBZ resistance had been diagnosed by coprological methods, and from a dairy farm with no history of TCBZ use, were also examined. The macroscopic arrangement of the reproductive system in flukes was studied using catechol/carmine stained whole mounts, and the histology of the main organs was examined using conventional haematoxylin-eosin stained sections. Validation of apoptosis in the fluke sections was carried out using an in situ hybridisation method designed to label endonuclease-induced DNA strand breaks. In TCBZ-S flukes exposed to TCBZ metabolites for 24–96 h in vivo, but not in TCBZ-R flukes, those tissues where active meiosis and/or mitosis occurred (testis, ovary, and vitelline follicles), were found to display progressive loss of cell content. This was due to apparent failure of cell division to keep pace with expulsion of the mature or effete products. Further, actively dividing cell types tended to become individualised, rounded and condensed, characteristic of apoptotic cell death. In the treated TCBZ-S flukes, strong positive labelling indicating apoptosis was associated with the morphologically abnormal cells undergoing mitosis or meiosis in the testis, ovary and vitelline follicles. In treated flukes from field outbreaks of suspected TCBZ-R fasciolosis, no significant histological changes were observed, nor was there any positive labelling for apotosis. On the other hand, sections of TCBZ treated flukes derived from a field case of fasciolosis where TCBZ resistance was not suspected displayed severe histological lesions, and heavy positive labelling for apoptosis. The triggering of apoptosis is considered to be related to failure of spindle formation at cell division, supporting the contention that TCBZ inhibits microtubule formation. In treated TCBZ-S flukes, protein synthesis and transport was apparently inhibited in the Mehlis’ secretory cells, perhaps due to energy uncoupling or to microtubule defects. In the uterus, successful formation of shelled eggs represents the culmination of a complex sequence of cytokinetic, cytological and synthetic activity involving the vitelline follicles, the ovary and the Mehlis’ gland. Histological evidence indicating failure of ovigenesis in TCBZ-S flukes was evident from as early as 24 h post-treatment onwards. Light labelling for apoptosis was associated with the testis of untreated Cullompton (TCBZ-S) and Sligo type 2 (TCBZ-R) flukes, which exhibit abnormal spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, respectively. This was attributed to apoptosis and to heterophagy of effete germ line cells by the sustentacular tissue. The studies summarised in this review illustrate the potential utility of histological techniques for conveniently screening representative samples of flukes in field trials designed to validate instances of drug resistance. Histology can also be used to test the efficacy of new products against known drug-resistant and drug-susceptible fluke isolates. The account also provides reference criteria for drug-induced histopathological changes in fluke reproductive structures, examination of which may supplement and augment conventional coprological testing, and aid interpretation of TEM findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Parasite Interactions)
Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Human β-Defensins in the Colon and Their Role in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases
Pathogens 2013, 2(1), 177-192; doi:10.3390/pathogens2010177
Received: 11 January 2013 / Revised: 1 March 2013 / Accepted: 10 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
β-defensins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides secreted by diverse cell types including colonic epithelial cells. Human β-defensins form an essential component of the intestinal lumen in innate immunity. The defensive mechanisms of β-defensins include binding to negatively charged microbial membranes that cause [...] Read more.
β-defensins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides secreted by diverse cell types including colonic epithelial cells. Human β-defensins form an essential component of the intestinal lumen in innate immunity. The defensive mechanisms of β-defensins include binding to negatively charged microbial membranes that cause cell death and chemoattraction of immune cells. The antimicrobial activity of β-defensin is well reported in vitro against several enteric pathogens and in non-infectious processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which alters β-defensin production. However, the role of β-defensin in vivo in its interaction with other immune components in host defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites with more complex membranes is still not well known. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding the role of β-defensin in relevant human infectious and non-infectious diseases of the colonic mucosa. In addition, we summarize the most significant aspects of β-defensin and its antimicrobial role in a variety of disease processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Parasite Interactions)
Open AccessReview The Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Parasitic Infections Involving the Central Nervous System
Pathogens 2013, 2(1), 105-129; doi:10.3390/pathogens2010105
Received: 24 December 2012 / Revised: 30 January 2013 / Accepted: 11 February 2013 / Published: 19 February 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (417 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent a large family of over twenty different secreted or membrane-bound endopeptidases, involved in many physiological (embryogenesis, precursor or stem cell mobilization, tissue remodeling during wound healing, etc.), as well as pathological (inflammation, tumor progression and metastasis in [...] Read more.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent a large family of over twenty different secreted or membrane-bound endopeptidases, involved in many physiological (embryogenesis, precursor or stem cell mobilization, tissue remodeling during wound healing, etc.), as well as pathological (inflammation, tumor progression and metastasis in cancer, vascular pathology, etc.) conditions. For a long time, MMPs were considered only for the ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules (e.g., collagen, laminin, fibronectin) and to release hidden epitopes from the ECM. In the last few years, it has been fully elucidated that these molecules have many other functions, mainly related to the immune response, in consideration of their effects on cytokines, hormones and chemokines. Among others, MMP-2 and MMP-9 are endopeptidases of the MMP family produced by neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes. When infection is associated with leukocyte influx into specific organs, immunopathology and collateral tissue damage may occur. In this review, the involvement of MMPs and, in particular, of gelatinases in both protozoan and helminth infections will be described. In cerebral malaria, for example, MMPs play a role in the pathogenesis of such diseases. Also, trypanosomosis and toxoplasmosis will be considered for protozoan infections, as well as neurocysticercosis and angiostrongyloidosis, as regards helminthiases. All these situations have in common the proteolytic action on the blood brain barrier, mediated by MMPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Parasite Interactions)
Open AccessReview Immune Evasion, Immunopathology and the Regulation of the Immune System
Pathogens 2013, 2(1), 71-91; doi:10.3390/pathogens2010071
Received: 19 December 2012 / Revised: 6 February 2013 / Accepted: 7 February 2013 / Published: 13 February 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Costs and benefits of the immune response have attracted considerable attention in the last years among evolutionary biologists. Given the cost of parasitism, natural selection should favor individuals with the most effective immune defenses. Nevertheless, there exists huge variation in the expression [...] Read more.
Costs and benefits of the immune response have attracted considerable attention in the last years among evolutionary biologists. Given the cost of parasitism, natural selection should favor individuals with the most effective immune defenses. Nevertheless, there exists huge variation in the expression of immune effectors among individuals. To explain this apparent paradox, it has been suggested that an over-reactive immune system might be too costly, both in terms of metabolic resources and risks of immune-mediated diseases, setting a limit to the investment into immune defenses. Here, we argue that this view neglects one important aspect of the interaction: the role played by evolving pathogens. We suggest that taking into account the co-evolutionary interactions between the host immune system and the parasitic strategies to overcome the immune response might provide a better picture of the selective pressures that shape the evolution of immune functioning. Integrating parasitic strategies of host exploitation can also contribute to understand the seemingly contradictory results that infection can enhance, but also protect from, autoimmune diseases. In the last decades, the incidence of autoimmune disorders has dramatically increased in wealthy countries of the northern hemisphere with a concomitant decrease of most parasitic infections. Experimental work on model organisms has shown that this pattern may be due to the protective role of certain parasites (i.e., helminths) that rely on the immunosuppression of hosts for their persistence. Interestingly, although parasite-induced immunosuppression can protect against autoimmunity, it can obviously favor the spread of other infections. Therefore, we need to think about the evolution of the immune system using a multidimensional trade-off involving immunoprotection, immunopathology and the parasitic strategies to escape the immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Parasite Interactions)
Open AccessReview Targeting Plasmodium falciparum Hsp90: Towards Reversing Antimalarial Resistance
Pathogens 2013, 2(1), 33-54; doi:10.3390/pathogens2010033
Received: 8 December 2012 / Revised: 18 January 2013 / Accepted: 23 January 2013 / Published: 4 February 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Malaria continues to exact a great human toll in tropical settings. Antimalarial resistance is rife and the parasite inexorably develops mechanisms to outwit our best drugs, including the now first-line choice, artesunate. Novel strategies to circumvent resistance are needed. Here we detail [...] Read more.
Malaria continues to exact a great human toll in tropical settings. Antimalarial resistance is rife and the parasite inexorably develops mechanisms to outwit our best drugs, including the now first-line choice, artesunate. Novel strategies to circumvent resistance are needed. Here we detail drug development focusing on heat shock protein 90 and its central role as a chaperone. A growing body of evidence supports the role for Hsp90 inhibitors as adjunctive drugs able to restore susceptibility to traditionally efficacious compounds like chloroquine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Parasite Interactions)
Figures

Open AccessReview Goblet Cells and Mucins: Role in Innate Defense in Enteric Infections
Pathogens 2013, 2(1), 55-70; doi:10.3390/pathogens2010055
Received: 9 January 2013 / Revised: 27 January 2013 / Accepted: 28 January 2013 / Published: 4 February 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Goblet cells reside throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are responsible for the production and preservation of a protective mucus blanket by synthesizing and secreting high molecular weight glycoproteins known as mucins. The concept of the mucus layer functioning as a dynamic [...] Read more.
Goblet cells reside throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are responsible for the production and preservation of a protective mucus blanket by synthesizing and secreting high molecular weight glycoproteins known as mucins. The concept of the mucus layer functioning as a dynamic protective barrier is suggested by studies showing changes in mucins in inflammatory conditions of the GI tract, by the altered goblet cell response in germ-free animals, and by the enhanced mucus secretion seen in response to infections. The mucin-containing mucus layer coating the GI epithelium is the front line of innate host defense. Mucins are likely to be the first molecules that invading pathogens interact with at the cell surface and thus, can limit binding to other glycoproteins and neutralize the pathogen. This review will focus on what is known about goblet cell response in various GI infections and the regulatory networks that mediate goblet cell function and mucin production in response to intestinal insults. In addition, we describe the current knowledge on the role of mucins in intestinal innate defense. It is the aim of this review to provide the readers with an update on goblet cell biology and current understanding on the role of mucins in host defense in enteric infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Parasite Interactions)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Pathogens Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
pathogens@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Pathogens
Back to Top