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Pathogens 2013, 2(2), 193-208; doi:10.3390/pathogens2020193
Article

Use of a Th1 Stimulator Adjuvant for Vaccination against Neospora caninum Infection in the Pregnant Mouse Model

1,* , 2
,
2,3
 and
1,*
1 Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Berne, Länggass-Strasse 122, CH-3012 Berne, Switzerland 2 Institute of Infectious Diseases, University of Berne, Friedbühlstrasse 51, CH-3010 Berne, Switzerland 3 Biology Division, Spiez Laboratory, Swiss Federal Office for Civil Protection, CH-3700 Spiez, Switzerland
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2013 / Accepted: 19 March 2013 / Published: 27 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Parasite Interactions)
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Abstract

Vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new Neospora caninum infections in cattle. A vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recNcMIC3-1-R, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins NcMIC1 and NcMIC3, the rhoptry protein NcROP2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. However, the same vaccine formulation elicited a Th2-type immune response in pregnant mice and did not prevent vertical transmission or disease, neither in dams nor in offspring mice. In this study, an alternative vaccine formulation containing recNcMIC3-1-R emulsified in Freund’s incomplete adjuvant, a stimulator of the cellular immunity, was investigated. No protection against vertical transmission and cerebral infection in the pregnant mice and a very limited protective effect in the non-pregnant mice were observed. The vaccine induced a Th1-type immune response characterized by high IgG2a titres and strong IFN-γ expression, which appeared detrimental to pregnancy.
Keywords: Neospora caninum; vaccination; recombinant antigen; pregnancy; vertical transmission; cytokines; mouse model; abortion Neospora caninum; vaccination; recombinant antigen; pregnancy; vertical transmission; cytokines; mouse model; abortion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Monney, T.; Grandgirard, D.; Leib, S.L.; Hemphill, A. Use of a Th1 Stimulator Adjuvant for Vaccination against Neospora caninum Infection in the Pregnant Mouse Model. Pathogens 2013, 2, 193-208.

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