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Order of Inoculation during Heligmosomoides bakeri and Hymenolepis microstoma Coinfection Alters Parasite Life History and Host Responses
Department of Biological Sciences, California State University San Marcos, San Marcos, CA 92096, USA
Current Address: Ross University, School of Medicine, NJ 08902, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2012; in revised form: 2 February 2013 / Accepted: 21 February 2013 / Published: 1 March 2013
Abstract: Parasite life history may differ during coinfection compared to single infections, and the order of infection may be an important predictor of life history traits. We subjected laboratory mice (Mus musculus) to single and coinfections with Heligmosomoides bakeri and Hymenolepis microstoma and measured life history traits of worms and also hepatobiliary and morphological responses by the host. We found that fewer H. bakeri larvae established, and adult worms were shorter and produced fewer eggs during a coinfection where H. microstoma occurred first. H. microstoma grew more and released more eggs after simultaneous inoculation of both parasites compared to a single H. microstoma infection, despite similar worm numbers. Mouse small intestine mass, but not length, varied with coinfection and bile duct mass was largest when H. microstoma was given alone or first. Mouse serum alkaline phosphatase levels were greatest for mice infected with H. microstoma only but did not vary with number of scolices; no change in mouse serum alanine transaminase levels was observed. Overall, the order of coinfection influenced life history traits of both H. bakeri and H. microstoma, but changes in survival, growth, and reproduction with order of inoculation were not consistent between the two parasites.
Keywords: coinfection; Nematode; Heligmosomoides bakeri; Cestode; Hymenolepis microstoma; life history; host plasticity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Clark, P.R.; Ward, W.T.; Lang, S.A.; Saghbini, A.; Kristan, D.M. Order of Inoculation during Heligmosomoides bakeri and Hymenolepis microstoma Coinfection Alters Parasite Life History and Host Responses. Pathogens 2013, 2, 130-152.
Clark PR, Ward WT, Lang SA, Saghbini A, Kristan DM. Order of Inoculation during Heligmosomoides bakeri and Hymenolepis microstoma Coinfection Alters Parasite Life History and Host Responses. Pathogens. 2013; 2(1):130-152.
Clark, Paul R.; Ward, W. T.; Lang, Samantha A.; Saghbini, Alaa; Kristan, Deborah M. 2013. "Order of Inoculation during Heligmosomoides bakeri and Hymenolepis microstoma Coinfection Alters Parasite Life History and Host Responses." Pathogens 2, no. 1: 130-152.