E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Carbohydrates"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jennie Brand-Miller

School of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +61 2 9351 6022
Interests: all aspects of carbohydrates, including diet and diabetes; the glycemic index and insulin resistance

Published Papers (7 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Food Intake and Dietary Glycaemic Index in Free-Living Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Nutrients 2011, 3(6), 683-693; doi:10.3390/nu3060683
Received: 5 May 2011 / Revised: 24 May 2011 / Accepted: 3 June 2011 / Published: 9 June 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A recent Cochrane review concluded that low glycaemic index (GI) diets are beneficial in glycaemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are limited UK data regarding the dietary GI in free-living adults with and without T2DM. We measured the
[...] Read more.
A recent Cochrane review concluded that low glycaemic index (GI) diets are beneficial in glycaemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are limited UK data regarding the dietary GI in free-living adults with and without T2DM. We measured the energy and macronutrient intake and the dietary GI in a group (n = 19) of individuals with diet controlled T2DM and a group (n = 19) without diabetes, matched for age, BMI and gender. Subjects completed a three-day weighed dietary record. Patients with T2DM consumed more daily portions of wholegrains (2.3 vs. 1.1, P = 0.003), more dietary fibre (32.1 vs. 20.9 g, P < 0.001) and had a lower diet GI (53.5 vs. 57.7, P = 0.009) than subjects without T2DM. Both groups had elevated fat and salt intake and low fruit and vegetable intake, relative to current UK recommendations. Conclusions: Patients with T2DM may already consume a lower GI diet than the general population but further efforts are needed to reduce dietary GI and achieve other nutrient targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrates)
Open AccessArticle The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe that Overweight and Obesity Have Increased
Nutrients 2011, 3(4), 491-504; doi:10.3390/nu3040491
Received: 4 March 2011 / Revised: 14 April 2011 / Accepted: 19 April 2011 / Published: 20 April 2011
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Correction 2 | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ecological research from the USA has demonstrated a positive relationship between sugars consumption and prevalence of obesity; however, the relationship in other nations is not well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the trends in obesity and sugar consumption in
[...] Read more.
Ecological research from the USA has demonstrated a positive relationship between sugars consumption and prevalence of obesity; however, the relationship in other nations is not well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the trends in obesity and sugar consumption in Australia over the past 30 years and to compare and contrast obesity trends and sugar consumption patterns in Australia with the UK and USA. Data on consumption of sugar in Australia, the UK and USA were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization for the years 1980–2003. The prevalence of obesity has increased 3 fold in Australians since 1980. In Australia, the UK and USA, per capita consumption of refined sucrose decreased by 23%, 10% and 20% respectively from 1980 to 2003. When all sources of nutritive sweeteners, including high fructose corn syrups, were considered, per capita consumption decreased in Australia (−16%) and the UK (−5%), but increased in the USA (+23%). In Australia, there was a reduction in sales of nutritively sweetened beverages by 64 million liters from 2002 to 2006 and a reduction in percentage of children consuming sugar-sweetened beverages between 1995 and 2007. The findings confirm an “Australian Paradox”—a substantial decline in refined sugars intake over the same timeframe that obesity has increased. The implication is that efforts to reduce sugar intake may reduce consumption but may not reduce the prevalence of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrates)
Open AccessArticle Effect of the Glycemic Index of Carbohydrates on Acne vulgaris
Nutrients 2010, 2(10), 1060-1072; doi:10.3390/nu2101060
Received: 3 September 2010 / Revised: 12 October 2010 / Accepted: 15 October 2010 / Published: 18 October 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Acne vulgaris may be improved by dietary factors that increase insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a low-glycemic index diet would improve facial acne severity and insulin sensitivity. Fifty-eight adolescent males (mean age ± standard deviation 16.5 ± 1.0 y and body mass index
[...] Read more.
Acne vulgaris may be improved by dietary factors that increase insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a low-glycemic index diet would improve facial acne severity and insulin sensitivity. Fifty-eight adolescent males (mean age ± standard deviation 16.5 ± 1.0 y and body mass index 23.1 ± 3.5 kg/m2) were alternately allocated to high or low glycemic index diets. Severity of inflammatory lesions on the face, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis modeling assessment of insulin resistance), androgens and insulin-like growth factor-1 and its binding proteins were assessed at baseline and at eight weeks, a period corresponding to the school term. Forty-three subjects (n = 23 low glycemic index and n = 20 high glycemic index) completed the study. Diets differed significantly in glycemic index (mean ± standard error of the mean, low glycemic index 51 ± 1 vs. high glycemic index 61 ± 2, p = 0.0002), but not in macronutrient distribution or fiber content. Facial acne improved on both diets (low glycemic index −26 ± 6%, p = 0.0004 and high glycemic index −16 ± 7%, p = 0.01), but differences between diets did not reach significance. Change in insulin sensitivity was not different between diets (low glycemic index 0.2 ± 0.1 and high glycemic index 0.1 ± 0.1, p = 0.60) and did not correlate with change in acne severity (Pearson correlation r = −0.196, p = 0.244). Longer time frames, greater reductions in glycemic load or/and weight loss may be necessary to detect improvements in acne among adolescent boys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrates)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.
Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 834-854; doi:10.3390/nu2080834
Received: 17 June 2010 / Revised: 28 July 2010 / Accepted: 30 July 2010 / Published: 3 August 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those
[...] Read more.
This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrates)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Starches, Sugars and Obesity
Nutrients 2011, 3(3), 341-369; doi:10.3390/nu3030341
Received: 24 January 2011 / Revised: 16 February 2011 / Accepted: 7 March 2011 / Published: 14 March 2011
Cited by 58 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in
[...] Read more.
The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrates)
Figures

Open AccessReview Perceived Barriers to Application of Glycaemic Index: Valid Concerns or Lost in Translation?
Nutrients 2011, 3(3), 330-340; doi:10.3390/nu3030330
Received: 10 January 2011 / Revised: 17 February 2011 / Accepted: 23 February 2011 / Published: 28 February 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The term glycaemic-index (GI) originally appeared in the literature in the early 1980s. GI categorizes carbohydrate according to glycaemic effect postprandially. Since its inception, GI has obtained and maintained interest of academics and clinicians globally. Upon review of GI literature, it becomes clear
[...] Read more.
The term glycaemic-index (GI) originally appeared in the literature in the early 1980s. GI categorizes carbohydrate according to glycaemic effect postprandially. Since its inception, GI has obtained and maintained interest of academics and clinicians globally. Upon review of GI literature, it becomes clear that the clinical utility of GI is a source of controversy. Can and should GI be applied clinically? There are academics and clinicians on both sides of the argument. Certainly, this controversy has been a stimulus for the evolution of GI methodology and application research, but may also negatively impact clinicians’ perception of GI if misunderstood. This article reviews two assessments of GI that are often listed as barriers to application; the GI concept is (1) too complex and (2) too difficult for clients to apply. The literature reviewed does not support the majority of purported barriers, but does indicate that there is a call from clinicians for more and improved GI education tools and clinician GI education. The literature indicates that the Registered Dietitian (RD) can play a key role in GI knowledge translation; from research to application. Research is warranted to assess GI education tool and knowledge needs of clinicians and the clients they serve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrates)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCorrection Barclay, A.W. and Brand-Miller, J. The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe that Overweight and Obesity Have Increased. Nutrients 2011, 3, 491-504
Nutrients 2011, 3(8), 734; doi:10.3390/nu3080734
Received: 29 July 2011 / Accepted: 9 August 2011 / Published: 9 August 2011
PDF Full-text (27 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have found some errors in our paper published in Nutrients [1]. We found that reference 18 in section 2.2 should be removed, the reference 18 in section 3.1 should be replaced with reference 19 and the reference 33 should be corrected as
[...] Read more.
We have found some errors in our paper published in Nutrients [1]. We found that reference 18 in section 2.2 should be removed, the reference 18 in section 3.1 should be replaced with reference 19 and the reference 33 should be corrected as follows. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrates)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Nutrients Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
nutrients@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Nutrients
Back to Top