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Food Intake and Dietary Glycaemic Index in Free-Living Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Department of Diabetes, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen AB25 2ZN, UK
Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, UK
The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK
Department of Diabetes & Cardiovascular Science, University of Highlands and Islands, Inverness IV2 3JH, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 May 2011; in revised form: 24 May 2011 / Accepted: 3 June 2011 / Published: 9 June 2011
Abstract: A recent Cochrane review concluded that low glycaemic index (GI) diets are beneficial in glycaemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are limited UK data regarding the dietary GI in free-living adults with and without T2DM. We measured the energy and macronutrient intake and the dietary GI in a group (n = 19) of individuals with diet controlled T2DM and a group (n = 19) without diabetes, matched for age, BMI and gender. Subjects completed a three-day weighed dietary record. Patients with T2DM consumed more daily portions of wholegrains (2.3 vs. 1.1, P = 0.003), more dietary fibre (32.1 vs. 20.9 g, P < 0.001) and had a lower diet GI (53.5 vs. 57.7, P = 0.009) than subjects without T2DM. Both groups had elevated fat and salt intake and low fruit and vegetable intake, relative to current UK recommendations. Conclusions: Patients with T2DM may already consume a lower GI diet than the general population but further efforts are needed to reduce dietary GI and achieve other nutrient targets.
Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus; diet; glycaemic index; lifestyle; food intake
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McGeoch, S.C.; Holtrop, G.; Fyfe, C.; Lobley, G.E.; Pearson, D.W.M.; Abraham, P.; Megson, I.L.; MacRury, S.M.; Johnstone, A.M. Food Intake and Dietary Glycaemic Index in Free-Living Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Nutrients 2011, 3, 683-693.
McGeoch SC, Holtrop G, Fyfe C, Lobley GE, Pearson DWM, Abraham P, Megson IL, MacRury SM, Johnstone AM. Food Intake and Dietary Glycaemic Index in Free-Living Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Nutrients. 2011; 3(6):683-693.
McGeoch, Susan C.; Holtrop, Grietje; Fyfe, Claire; Lobley, Gerald E.; Pearson, Donald W. M.; Abraham, Prakash; Megson, Ian L.; MacRury, Sandra M.; Johnstone, Alexandra M. 2011. "Food Intake and Dietary Glycaemic Index in Free-Living Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus." Nutrients 3, no. 6: 683-693.