Special Issue "Synthesis and Characterization of Nanowires"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Víctor Manuel Prida

Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Oviedo,E-33007 Oviedo, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Magnetic properties of amorphous, nano-crystalline and nanostructured materials; Heusler alloys; synthesis of nanoporous materials by electrochemical etching; magnetic nanowires and nanotubes; magneto-transport -and-electric effects; magnetocaloric and thermoelectric effects; magneto-optical sensing and biosensing; surface coatings for healthcare and nanobiomedical applications; microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems; photo-catalysis; energy recovery, conversion and storage; supercapacitors; energy harvesting and wastewater

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanoscale sized materials and particularly, metallic, magnetic and semiconducting nanowires, are nowadays attracting a great deal of attention among scientists coming from different research fields, due to their peculiar physico-chemical features, exhibited due to their nanometer size dimensions and specific geometries. Therefore, wire-shaped nanomaterials have become key elements in many modern technological approaches, including magnetic data storage, energy conversion and harvesting, catalysis, sensing, photonics and many others.

This Special Issue is aimed at providing selected contributions on advances in the synthesis, characterization and prospective technological applications of nanowires, featuring recent and novel developments in chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering, biology or medicine, among many other disciplines. Gaining a thorough understanding regarding different synthesis conditions of nanowires and the characterization of their properties by employing several experimental techniques, will help us to move forward in real-world technical applications.

The scope of this Special Issue covers broad and interdisciplinary research areas where the one-dimensionality of nanowires becomes noteworthy. Topics and applications in which nanowires are being currently used, can include, but are not limited to, magnetic sensors and data storage in race track memory devices, photovoltaic cells, fuel cells, thermo-electric devices, batteries, super-capacitors, photocatalyst, electronic devices and spintronics, etc.

Prof. Dr. Víctor Manuel Prida
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Template-based nanowires
  • template-free nanowires
  • electrochemical deposition
  • Vapor Solid Liquid
  • semiconducting nanowires
  • metallic and magnetic nanowires
  • thermoelectricity
  • data storage
  • energy conversion and harvesting
  • supercapacitors

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Two-Step Magnetization Reversal FORC Fingerprint of Coupled Bi-Segmented Ni/Co Magnetic Nanowire Arrays
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070548 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) analysis has been established as an appropriate method to investigate the magnetic interactions among complex ferromagnetic nanostructures. In this work, the magnetization reversal mechanism of bi-segmented nanowires composed by long Co and Ni segments contacted at one side
[...] Read more.
First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) analysis has been established as an appropriate method to investigate the magnetic interactions among complex ferromagnetic nanostructures. In this work, the magnetization reversal mechanism of bi-segmented nanowires composed by long Co and Ni segments contacted at one side was investigated, as a model system to identify and understand the FORC fingerprint of a two-step magnetization reversal process. The resulting hysteresis loop of the bi-segmented nanowire array exhibits a completely different magnetic behavior than the one expected for the magnetization reversal process corresponding to each respective Co and Ni nanowire arrays, individually. Based on the FORC analysis, two possible magnetization reversal processes can be distinguished as a consequence of the ferromagnetic coupling at the interface between the Ni and Co segments. Depending on the relative difference between the magnetization switching fields of each segment, the softer magnetic phase induces the switching of the harder one through the injection and propagation of a magnetic domain wall when both switching fields are comparable. On the other hand, if the switching fields values differ enough, the antiparallel magnetic configuration of nanowires is also possible but energetically unfavorable, thus resulting in an unstable magnetic configuration. Making use of the different temperature dependence of the magnetic properties for each nanowire segment with different composition, one of the two types of magnetization reversal is favored, as demonstrated by FORC analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Nanowires)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Cu Length on the Magnetic Behaviour of Fe/Cu Multi-Segmented Nanowires
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070490
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract
A set of multi-segmented Fe/Cu nanowires were synthesized by a two-step anodization process of aluminum substrates and a pulsed electrodeposition technique using a single bath. While both Fe segment length and diameter were kept constant to (30 ± 7) and (45 ± 5)
[...] Read more.
A set of multi-segmented Fe/Cu nanowires were synthesized by a two-step anodization process of aluminum substrates and a pulsed electrodeposition technique using a single bath. While both Fe segment length and diameter were kept constant to (30 ± 7) and (45 ± 5) nm, respectively, Cu length was varied between (15 ± 5) and (120 ± 10) nm. The influence of the non-magnetic layer thickness variation on the nanowire magnetic properties was investigated through first-order reversal curve (FORC) measurements and micromagnetic simulations. Our analysis confirmed that, in the multi-segmented Fe/Cu nanowires with shorter Cu segments, the dipolar coupling between Fe segments controls the nanowire magnetic behavior, and its performance is like that of a homogenous Fe nanowire array of similar dimensions. On the other hand, multi-segmented Fe/Cu nanowires with larger Cu segments act like a collection of non-interacting magnetic entities (along the nanowire axis), and their global behavior is mainly controlled by the neighbor-to-neighbor nanodisc dipolar interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Nanowires)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Scaffold-Based 3D Magnetic Nanowires for Domain Wall Applications
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070483
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 30 June 2018
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Abstract
Three-dimensional magnetic nanostructures hold great potential to revolutionize information technologies and to enable the study of novel physical phenomena. In this work, we describe a hybrid nanofabrication process combining bottom-up 3D nano-printing and top-down thin film deposition, which leads to the fabrication of
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional magnetic nanostructures hold great potential to revolutionize information technologies and to enable the study of novel physical phenomena. In this work, we describe a hybrid nanofabrication process combining bottom-up 3D nano-printing and top-down thin film deposition, which leads to the fabrication of complex magnetic nanostructures suitable for the study of new 3D magnetic effects. First, a non-magnetic 3D scaffold is nano-printed using Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition; then a thin film magnetic material is thermally evaporated onto the scaffold, leading to a functional 3D magnetic nanostructure. Scaffold geometries are extended beyond recently developed single-segment geometries by introducing a dual-pitch patterning strategy. Additionally, by tilting the substrate during growth, low-angle segments can be patterned, circumventing a major limitation of this nano-printing process; this is demonstrated by the fabrication of ‘staircase’ nanostructures with segments parallel to the substrate. The suitability of nano-printed scaffolds to support thermally evaporated thin films is discussed, outlining the importance of including supporting pillars to prevent deformation during the evaporation process. Employing this set of methods, a set of nanostructures tailored to precisely match a dark-field magneto-optical magnetometer have been fabricated and characterized. This work demonstrates the versatility of this hybrid technique and the interesting magnetic properties of the nanostructures produced, opening a promising route for the development of new 3D devices for applications and fundamental studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Nanowires)
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Open AccessArticle Emergence of Quantum Phase-Slip Behaviour in Superconducting NbN Nanowires: DC Electrical Transport and Fabrication Technologies
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060442
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Superconducting nanowires undergoing quantum phase-slips have potential for impact in electronic devices, with a high-accuracy quantum current standard among a possible toolbox of novel components. A key element of developing such technologies is to understand the requirements for, and control the production of,
[...] Read more.
Superconducting nanowires undergoing quantum phase-slips have potential for impact in electronic devices, with a high-accuracy quantum current standard among a possible toolbox of novel components. A key element of developing such technologies is to understand the requirements for, and control the production of, superconducting nanowires that undergo coherent quantum phase-slips. We present three fabrication technologies, based on using electron-beam lithography or neon focussed ion-beam lithography, for defining narrow superconducting nanowires, and have used these to create nanowires in niobium nitride with widths in the range of 20–250 nm. We present characterisation of the nanowires using DC electrical transport at temperatures down to 300 mK. We demonstrate that a range of different behaviours may be obtained in different nanowires, including bulk-like superconducting properties with critical-current features, the observation of phase-slip centres and the observation of zero conductance below a critical voltage, characteristic of coherent quantum phase-slips. We observe critical voltages up to 5 mV, an order of magnitude larger than other reports to date. The different prominence of quantum phase-slip effects in the various nanowires may be understood as arising from the differing importance of quantum fluctuations. Control of the nanowire properties will pave the way for routine fabrication of coherent quantum phase-slip nanowire devices for technology applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Nanowires)
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Open AccessArticle Three-Dimensional Bi2Te3 Networks of Interconnected Nanowires: Synthesis and Optimization
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(5), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8050345
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
Self-standing Bi2Te3 networks of interconnected nanowires were fabricated in three-dimensional porous anodic alumina templates (3D–AAO) with a porous structure spreading in all three spatial dimensions. Pulsed electrodeposition parameters were optimized to grow highly oriented Bi2Te3 interconnected nanowires
[...] Read more.
Self-standing Bi2Te3 networks of interconnected nanowires were fabricated in three-dimensional porous anodic alumina templates (3D–AAO) with a porous structure spreading in all three spatial dimensions. Pulsed electrodeposition parameters were optimized to grow highly oriented Bi2Te3 interconnected nanowires with stoichiometric composition inside those 3D–AAO templates. The nanowire networks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and Raman spectroscopy. The results are compared to those obtained in films and 1D nanowires grown under similar conditions. The crystalline structure and composition of the 3D Bi–Te nanowire network are finely tuned by controlling the applied voltage and the relaxation time off at zero current density during the deposition. With this fabrication method, and controlling the electrodeposition parameters, stoichiometric Bi2Te3 networks of interconnected nanowires have been obtained, with a preferential orientation along [1 1 0], which makes them optimal candidates for out-of-plane thermoelectric applications. Moreover, the templates in which they are grown can be dissolved and the network of interconnected nanowires is self-standing without affecting its composition and orientation properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Nanowires)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of N2 Partial Pressure on Growth, Structure, and Optical Properties of GaN Nanorods Deposited by Liquid-Target Reactive Magnetron Sputter Epitaxy
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040223
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
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Abstract
GaN nanorods, essentially free from crystal defects and exhibiting very sharp band-edge luminescence, have been grown by reactive direct-current magnetron sputter epitaxy onto Si (111) substrates at a low working pressure of 5 mTorr. Upon diluting the reactive N2 working gas with
[...] Read more.
GaN nanorods, essentially free from crystal defects and exhibiting very sharp band-edge luminescence, have been grown by reactive direct-current magnetron sputter epitaxy onto Si (111) substrates at a low working pressure of 5 mTorr. Upon diluting the reactive N2 working gas with a small amount of Ar (0.5 mTorr), we observed an increase in the nanorod aspect ratio from 8 to ~35, a decrease in the average diameter from 74 to 35 nm, and a two-fold increase in nanorod density. With further dilution (Ar = 2.5 mTorr), the aspect ratio decreased to 14, while the diameter increased to 60 nm and the nanorod density increased to a maximum of 2.4 × 109 cm−2. Yet, lower N2 partial pressures eventually led to the growth of continuous GaN films. The observed morphological dependence on N2 partial pressure is explained by a change from N-rich to Ga-rich growth conditions, combined with reduced GaN-poisoning of the Ga-target as the N2 gas pressure is reduced. Nanorods grown at 2.5 mTorr N2 partial pressure exhibited a high intensity 4 K photoluminescence neutral donor bound exciton transitions (D0XA) peak at ~3.479 eV with a full-width-at-half-maximum of 1.7 meV. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy corroborated the excellent crystalline quality of the nanorods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Nanowires)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of the MEMS Measurement Platform Design on the Seebeck Coefficient Measurement of a Single Nanowire
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040219
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
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Abstract
In order to study the thermoelectric properties of individual nanowires, a thermoelectric nanowire characterization platform (TNCP) has been previously developed and used in our chair. Here, we report on a redesigned platform aiming to optimize performance, mechanical stability and usability. We compare both
[...] Read more.
In order to study the thermoelectric properties of individual nanowires, a thermoelectric nanowire characterization platform (TNCP) has been previously developed and used in our chair. Here, we report on a redesigned platform aiming to optimize performance, mechanical stability and usability. We compare both platforms for electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient for an individual Ag nanowire of the previously-used batch and for comparable measurement conditions. By this, the measurement performance of both designs can be investigated. As a result, whereas the electrical conductivity is comparable, the Seebeck coefficient shows a 50% deviation with respect to the previous studies. We discuss the possible effects of the platform design on the thermoelectric measurements. One reason for the deviation of the Seebeck coefficient is the design of the platform leading to temperature gradients along the bond pads. We further analyze the effect of bonding materials Au and Pt, as well as the effect of temperature distributions along the bond pads used for the thermovoltage acquisition. Another major reason for the variation of the measurement results is the non-homogeneous temperature distribution along the thermometer. We conclude that for the measurement of small Seebeck coefficients, an isothermal positioning of voltage-probing bond pads, as well as a constant temperature profile at the measurement zone are essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Nanowires)
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Open AccessArticle Understanding the Effects of NaCl, NaBr and Their Mixtures on Silver Nanowire Nucleation and Growth in Terms of the Distribution of Electron Traps in Silver Halide Crystals
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(3), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8030161
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, many research groups have synthesized ultra-thin silver nanowires (AgNWs) with diameters below 30 nm by employing Cl and Br simultaneously in the polyol process. However, the yield of AgNWs in this method was low, due to the production
[...] Read more.
In recent years, many research groups have synthesized ultra-thin silver nanowires (AgNWs) with diameters below 30 nm by employing Cl and Br simultaneously in the polyol process. However, the yield of AgNWs in this method was low, due to the production of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) as an unwanted byproduct, especially in the case of high Br concentration. Here, we investigated the roles of Cl and Br in the preparation of AgNWs and then synthesized high aspect ratio (up to 2100) AgNWs in high yield (>85% AgNWs) using a Cl and Br co-mediated method. We found that multiply-twinned particles (MTPs) with different critical sizes were formed and grew into AgNWs, accompanied by a small and large amount of AgNPs for the NaCl and NaBr additives, respectively. For the first time, we propose that the growth of AgNWs of different diameters and yields can be understood based on the electron trap distribution (ETD) of the silver halide crystals. For the case of Cl and Br co-additives, a mixed silver halide crystal of AgBr1−xClx was formed, rather than the AgBr/AgCl mixture reported previously. In this type of crystal, the ETD is uniform, which is beneficial for the synthesis of AgNWs with small diameter (30~40 nm) and high aspect ratio. AgNW transparent electrodes were prepared in air by rod coating. A sheet resistance of 48 Ω/sq and transmittance of 95% at 550 nm were obtained without any post-treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Nanowires)
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Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Preparation of Polyaniline Nanowires with the Used Electrolyte Solution Treated with the Extraction Process and Their Electrochemical Performance
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8020103
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
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Abstract
Electrochemical polymerization of aniline is one of the most promising methods to prepare polyaniline (PANI) materials. However, during this process, the electrolyte solution must be replaced after electropolymerization of a certain time because of the generation and the accumulation of the by-products, which
[...] Read more.
Electrochemical polymerization of aniline is one of the most promising methods to prepare polyaniline (PANI) materials. However, during this process, the electrolyte solution must be replaced after electropolymerization of a certain time because of the generation and the accumulation of the by-products, which have significant effects on the morphology, purity and properties of PANI products. Treatment and recycling of the used electrolyte solution are worthwhile to study to reduce the high treatment cost of the used electrolyte solution containing aniline and its polymerization by-products. Here, the composition of the used electrolyte solution was separated and determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) in the range of ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis) light. The analysis results revealed that the used electrolyte solution consisted of aniline, p-hydroquinone (HQ), p-benzoquinone (BQ), co-oligomers of aniline and p-benzoquinone (CAB) and acid. Then, n-octanol and 2-octanone were selected as extracts to remove HQ, BQ and CAB from the used electrolyte solution. Following that, the recycled electrolyte solution was prepared by adjusting the concentration of aniline and acid of the aqueous phase, and the electrochemical polymerization process was conducted. Finally, the obtained PANI was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electrochemical methods. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the morphology and specific capacitance of PANI produced from the recycled electrolyte solution can be recovered completely. This research paves the way for reusing the used electrolyte solution for aniline electrochemical polymerization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Nanowires)
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Open AccessArticle Evolution of Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown on Vacuum Annealed Seed Crystallites
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8020068
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the ambient condition for the as-coated seed layer (SL) annealing at 350 °C is varied from air or nitrogen to vacuum to examine the evolution of structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods (NRs). The NR crystals of high surface
[...] Read more.
In this study, the ambient condition for the as-coated seed layer (SL) annealing at 350 °C is varied from air or nitrogen to vacuum to examine the evolution of structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods (NRs). The NR crystals of high surface density (~240 rods/μm2) and aspect ratio (~20.3) show greatly enhanced (002) degree of orientation and crystalline quality, when grown on the SLs annealed in vacuum, compared to those annealed in air or nitrogen ambient. This is due to the vacuum-annealed SL crystals of a highly preferred orientation toward (002) and large grain sizes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also reveals that the highest O/Zn atomic ratio of 0.89 is obtained in the case of vacuum-annealed SL crystals, which is due to the effective desorption of hydroxyl groups and other contaminants adsorbed on the surface formed during aqueous solution-based growth process. Near band edge emission (ultra violet range of 360–400 nm) of the vacuum-annealed SLs is also enhanced by 44% and 33% as compared to those annealed in air and nitrogen ambient, respectively, in photoluminescence with significant suppression of visible light emission associated with deep level transition. Due to this improvement of SL optical crystalline quality, the NR crystals grown on the vacuum-annealed SLs produce ~3 times higher ultra violet emission intensity than the other samples. In summary, it is shown that the ZnO NRs preferentially grow along the wurtzite c-axis direction, thereby producing the high crystalline quality of nanostructures when they grow on the vacuum-annealed SLs of high crystalline quality with minimized impurities and excellent preferred orientation. The ZnO nanostructures of high crystalline quality achieved in this study can be utilized for a wide range of potential device applications such as laser diodes, light-emitting diodes, piezoelectric transducers and generators, gas sensors, and ultraviolet detectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Nanowires)
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Open AccessArticle Phonon Confinement Induced Non-Concomitant Near-Infrared Emission along a Single ZnO Nanowire: Spatial Evolution Study of Phononic and Photonic Properties
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(11), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7110353
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
The impact of mixed defects on ZnO phononic and photonic properties at the nanoscale is only now being investigated. Here we report an effective strategy to study the distribution of defects along the growth direction of a single ZnO nanowire (NW), performed qualitatively
[...] Read more.
The impact of mixed defects on ZnO phononic and photonic properties at the nanoscale is only now being investigated. Here we report an effective strategy to study the distribution of defects along the growth direction of a single ZnO nanowire (NW), performed qualitatively as well as quantitatively using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), confocal Raman-, and photoluminescence (PL)-mapping technique. A non-concomitant near-infrared (NIR) emission of 1.53 ± 0.01 eV was observed near the bottom region of 2.05 ± 0.05 μm along a single ZnO NW and could be successfully explained by the radiative recombination of shallowly trapped electrons V_O^(**) with deeply trapped holes at V_Zn^''. A linear chain model modified from a phonon confinement model was used to describe the growth of short-range correlations between the mean distance of defects and its evolution with spatial position along the axial growth direction by fitting the E2H mode. Our results are expected to provide new insights into improving the study of the photonic and photonic properties of a single nanowire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Nanowires)
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