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Nanomaterials 2016, 6(12), 239; doi:10.3390/nano6120239

Investigating Polymer–Metal Interfaces by Grazing Incidence Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering from Gradients to Real-Time Studies

1
Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany
2
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, Teknikringen 56-58, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mikael S. Hedenqvist
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Polymer-Based Nanocomposites)
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Abstract

Tailoring the polymer–metal interface is crucial for advanced material design. Vacuum deposition methods for metal layer coating are widely used in industry and research. They allow for installing a variety of nanostructures, often making use of the selective interaction of the metal atoms with the underlying polymer thin film. The polymer thin film may eventually be nanostructured, too, in order to create a hierarchy in length scales. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering is an advanced method to characterize and investigate polymer–metal interfaces. Being non-destructive and yielding statistically relevant results, it allows for deducing the detailed polymer–metal interaction. We review the use of grazing incidence X-ray scattering to elucidate the polymer–metal interface, making use of the modern synchrotron radiation facilities, allowing for very local studies via in situ (so-called “stop-sputter”) experiments as well as studies observing the nanostructured metal nanoparticle layer growth in real time. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymer–metal interfaces; nanocomposites; nanostructure formation; sputter deposition; polymer template; X-ray scattering; grazing incidence X-ray scattering; in situ; growth kinetics polymer–metal interfaces; nanocomposites; nanostructure formation; sputter deposition; polymer template; X-ray scattering; grazing incidence X-ray scattering; in situ; growth kinetics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Schwartzkopf, M.; Roth, S.V. Investigating Polymer–Metal Interfaces by Grazing Incidence Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering from Gradients to Real-Time Studies. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 239.

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