Special Issue "Composite Nanomaterials"

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A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2012)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Olfa Glaied

School of Life Sciences, Institute for Chemistry and Bioanalytics, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Gründenstrasse 40, 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland
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Interests: polymer synthesis and self assembly, responsive polymers, composite nanomaterials, nanopore-based materials, nanomaterial surfaces and interfaces
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Uwe Pieles

University of Applied Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH 4132, Muttenz, Switzerland
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Fax: +41 6146 74457
Interests: nanomaterials; nanoparticles; supramolecular chemistry; material science; surface analysis; microscopy; surface modification; surface chemistry; biosensors; surface structuring

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials are materials designed at the molecular nanometre level to take advantage of their smaller size and novel properties which are generally not seen in their conventional micro state counterparts. The physico-chemical properties of nanomaterials can change compared to those of the micro size such as e.g. the ability to conduct electricity, the strength characteristics and the magnetism. These differences of properties are based on two main reasons, the increasing of the relative surface area and the new quantum effects. At nano-scale, materials have a much greater area to volume ratio then their micro size which increase the chemical reactivity and their strength. In addition, the quantum effects can become much more important in determining the materials characteristics, leading to new properties.
This special issue of Nanomaterials will be devoted to the emerging field of Composite Nanomaterials. In the last few years, nanocomposites have evoked a lot of interest. Their potential in research, industry and to the community have been highlighted and demonstrated in several studies, articles and reports. The polymer nanocomposites are based on organic polymer and inorganic nanoparticle; these composites have attracted increasing attention because of their unique properties emerging from the combination of organic and inorganic hybrid materials. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, and the nanostructure of the particles, nanocomposites are expected to show new and improved properties. The potential applications of the resultant nanocomposites are various, e.g., biomedical, automotive, sensors, opto-electronics, etc.

The scope of Nanomaterials aims to cover recent progress in nanocomposites; particular attention will be given to new contributions in the field of characterization and applications of nanocomposites. Nanomaterials Special Issue (ISSN 2079-4991) call for new contributions in the field of nanocomposites and will give direct access to the most recent information in this field.

Dr. Olfa Glaied
Prof. Dr. Uwe Pieles
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • Inorganic-organic nanocomposites
  • Polymer nanocomposites
  • Characterizations of nanocomposites
  • Rheological and thermal characterization of nanocomposites
  • Novel applications of nanocomposites

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Grafting of Polycaprolactone on Oxidized Nanocelluloses by Click Chemistry
Nanomaterials 2013, 3(1), 141-157; doi:10.3390/nano3010141
Received: 8 December 2012 / Revised: 30 January 2013 / Accepted: 13 February 2013 / Published: 1 March 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1984 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main objective of this work is the grafting of polycaprolactone diol (PCL) on the surface of oxidized nanocelluloses (ONC) in order to enhance the compatibility between the hydrophilic cellulose nanofibres and the hydrophobic polymer matrix. This grafting was successfully realized with a
[...] Read more.
The main objective of this work is the grafting of polycaprolactone diol (PCL) on the surface of oxidized nanocelluloses (ONC) in order to enhance the compatibility between the hydrophilic cellulose nanofibres and the hydrophobic polymer matrix. This grafting was successfully realized with a new strategy known as click chemistry. In this context, the oxidized nanocelluloses bearing alkyl groups (ONC-PR) were prepared by reacting amino groups of propargylamine (PR) with carboxyl groups of ONC. In parallel, PCL was converted into azido-polycaprolactone (PCL-N3) in two steps: (i) tosylation of polycaprolactone (PCL-OTs) and (ii) conversion of PCL-OTs into PCL-N3 by nucleophilic displacement using sodium azide. Finally, ONC-PR was reacted with PCL-N3 in heterogeneous conditions through click chemistry in order to prepare polycaprolactone grafted oxidized nanocellulose (ONC-g-PCL), which could be suitable for improving the interfacial adhesion in the composite materials. The grafted samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C-NMR) spectroscopic techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Assembl y of Poly-3-Hexylthiophene Nano-Crystallites into Low Dimensional Structures Using Indandione Derivatives
Nanomaterials 2013, 3(1), 107-116; doi:10.3390/nano3010107
Received: 20 December 2012 / Revised: 20 January 2013 / Accepted: 27 January 2013 / Published: 1 February 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Conductive polymer poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) needles were self-assembled using a second component (indandione derivatives) as a linking agent to enhance their long range alignment. The morphologies of the hybrid organic/organic materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both linear and branched structures could
[...] Read more.
Conductive polymer poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) needles were self-assembled using a second component (indandione derivatives) as a linking agent to enhance their long range alignment. The morphologies of the hybrid organic/organic materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both linear and branched structures could be produced, with the degree of branching depending upon the linker used. Incorporation of indandione derivatives broadened the UV absorbance band of P3HT without significant change to its photoluminescence. This hybrid material could open a promising avenue in photovoltaic applications due to its interesting morphologies and optical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Maghemite Intercalated Montmorillonite as New Nanofillers for Photopolymers
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(4), 413-427; doi:10.3390/nano2040413
Received: 31 August 2012 / Revised: 31 October 2012 / Accepted: 8 November 2012 / Published: 19 November 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (624 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, maghemite intercalated montmorillonite (γFe2O3-MMT)/polymer nanocomposites loaded with 1 or 2 wt.% of nanofillers were obtained by photopolymerization of difunctional acrylate monomers. The γFe2O3-MMT nanofillers were prepared by a new method based on
[...] Read more.
In this work, maghemite intercalated montmorillonite (γFe2O3-MMT)/polymer nanocomposites loaded with 1 or 2 wt.% of nanofillers were obtained by photopolymerization of difunctional acrylate monomers. The γFe2O3-MMT nanofillers were prepared by a new method based on the in situ formation of maghemite in the interlayer space of Fe-MMT using a three step process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical analysis, TG/DTA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization of these nanofillers indicated the efficiency of the synthesis. When following the kinetics of the photopolymerization of diacrylate-γFe2O3-MMT nanocomposites using FTIR spectroscopy no significant inhibition effect of the nanofillers was observed at a loading up to 2 wt.%. These innovative nanocomposites exhibit improved mechanical properties compared to the crude polymer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Mechanism of the Gold Cluster Growth during Heating of the Composite Gold-Polytetrafluoroethylene Thin Film
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(4), 366-378; doi:10.3390/nano2040366
Received: 17 October 2012 / Accepted: 26 October 2012 / Published: 7 November 2012
PDF Full-text (894 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanocomposite films consisting of gold inclusions in the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) matrix were obtained by thermal vacuum deposition. Annealing of the obtained films with different temperatures was used to measure varying of film morphologies. The dependence of optical properties of the films on their
[...] Read more.
Nanocomposite films consisting of gold inclusions in the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) matrix were obtained by thermal vacuum deposition. Annealing of the obtained films with different temperatures was used to measure varying of film morphologies. The dependence of optical properties of the films on their morphology was studied. It was established that absorption and profile of the nanocomposite film obtained by thermal vacuum deposition can be changed with annealing owing to the fact that different annealing temperatures lead to different average particle sizes. A method to calculate the optical properties of nanocomposite thin films with inclusions of different sizes was proposed. Thus, comparison of experimental optical spectra with the spectra obtained during the simulation enables estimating average sizes of inclusions. The calculations give the possibility of understanding morphological changes in the structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Improved Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymers at High Concentrations
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(4), 329-347; doi:10.3390/nano2040329
Received: 3 September 2012 / Revised: 24 September 2012 / Accepted: 6 October 2012 / Published: 26 October 2012
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (1822 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The polymer nanocomposite used in this work comprises elastomer poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as a polymer matrix and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a conductive nanofiller. To achieve uniform distribution of carbon nanotubes within the polymer, an optimized dispersion process was developed, featuring a strong
[...] Read more.
The polymer nanocomposite used in this work comprises elastomer poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as a polymer matrix and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a conductive nanofiller. To achieve uniform distribution of carbon nanotubes within the polymer, an optimized dispersion process was developed, featuring a strong organic solvent—chloroform, which dissolved PDMS base polymer easily and allowed high quality dispersion of MWCNTs. At concentrations as high as 9 wt.%, MWCNTs were dispersed uniformly through the polymer matrix, which presented a major improvement over prior techniques. The dispersion procedure was optimized via extended experimentation, which is discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Hybrid Epoxy Nanocomposites
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(4), 348-365; doi:10.3390/nano2040348
Received: 4 September 2012 / Revised: 24 September 2012 / Accepted: 9 October 2012 / Published: 26 October 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study focused on the effect of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) content and its surface treatment on thermo-mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites. MWCNTs were surface treated and incorporated into two epoxy systems. MWCNT's surface treatments were based on: (a) Titania coating obtained
[...] Read more.
This study focused on the effect of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) content and its surface treatment on thermo-mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites. MWCNTs were surface treated and incorporated into two epoxy systems. MWCNT's surface treatments were based on: (a) Titania coating obtained by sol-gel process and (b) a nonionic surfactant. Thermo-mechanical properties improvement was obtained following incorporation of treated MWCNT. It was noticed that small amounts of titania coated MWCNT (0.05 wt %) led to an increase in the glass transition temperature and stiffness. The best performance was achieved adding 0.3 wt % titania coated MWCNT where an increase of 10 °C in the glass transition temperature and 30% in storage modulus were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Influence of High Shear Dispersion on the Production of Cellulose Nanofibers by Ultrasound-Assisted TEMPO-Oxidation of Kraft Pulp
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(3), 286-297; doi:10.3390/nano2030286
Received: 17 July 2012 / Revised: 23 August 2012 / Accepted: 27 August 2012 / Published: 10 September 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (893 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cellulose nanofibers can be produced using a combination of TEMPO, sodium bromide (NaBr) and sodium hypochlorite, and mechanical dispersion. Recently, this process has been the subject of intensive investigation. However, studies on the aspects of mechanical treatment of this process remain marginal. The
[...] Read more.
Cellulose nanofibers can be produced using a combination of TEMPO, sodium bromide (NaBr) and sodium hypochlorite, and mechanical dispersion. Recently, this process has been the subject of intensive investigation. However, studies on the aspects of mechanical treatment of this process remain marginal. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the high shear dispersion parameters (e.g., consistency, stator-rotor gap, recirculation rate and pH) and determine their influences on nanocellulose production using ultrasound-assisted TEMPO-oxidation of Kraft pulp. All nanofiber gels produced in this study exhibited rheological behaviors known as shear thinning. From all the dispersion parameters, the following conditions were identified as optimal: 0.042 mm stator-rotor gap, 200 mL/min recycle rate, dispersion pH of 7 and a feed consistency of 2%. High quality cellulose gel could be produced under these conditions. This finding is surely of great interest for the pulp and paper industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanomaterials)
Open AccessCommunication All-Solid-State Textile Batteries Made from Nano-Emulsion Conducting Polymer Inks for Wearable Electronics
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(3), 268-274; doi:10.3390/nano2030268
Received: 17 July 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 1 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A rollable and all-solid-state textile lithium battery based on fabric matrix and polymer electrolyte that allows flexibility and fast-charging capability is reported. When immerged into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nano-emulsion inks, an insulating fabric is converted into a conductive battery electrode for a fully solid
[...] Read more.
A rollable and all-solid-state textile lithium battery based on fabric matrix and polymer electrolyte that allows flexibility and fast-charging capability is reported. When immerged into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nano-emulsion inks, an insulating fabric is converted into a conductive battery electrode for a fully solid state lithium battery with the highest specific energy capacity of 68 mAh/g. This is superior to most of the solid-state conducting polymer primary and/or secondary batteries reported. The bending radius of such a textile battery is less than 1.5 mm while lightening up an LED. This new material combination and inherent flexibility is well suited to provide an energy source for future wearable and woven electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Amino Acid and Peptide Immobilization on Oxidized Nanocellulose: Spectroscopic Characterization
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(2), 187-205; doi:10.3390/nano2020187
Received: 18 April 2012 / Revised: 24 May 2012 / Accepted: 5 June 2012 / Published: 12 June 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, oxidized nanocellulose (ONC) was synthesized and chemically coupled with amino acids and peptides using a two step coupling method at room temperature. First, ONC was activated by N-ethyl-N’-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride, forming a stable active ester in the
[...] Read more.
In this work, oxidized nanocellulose (ONC) was synthesized and chemically coupled with amino acids and peptides using a two step coupling method at room temperature. First, ONC was activated by N-ethyl-N’-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride, forming a stable active ester in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide. Second, the active ester was reacted with the amino group of the amino acid or peptide, forming an amide bond between ONC and the grafted molecule. Using this method, the intermolecular interaction of amino acids and peptides was avoided and uniform coupling of these molecules on ONC was achieved. The coupling reaction was very fast in mild conditions and without alteration of the polysaccharide. The coupling products (ONC-amino acids and ONC-peptides) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by the absorption, emission, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectroscopic techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Al2O3 Nanoparticle Addition to Commercial Magnesium Alloys: Multiple Beneficial Effects
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(2), 147-162; doi:10.3390/nano2020147
Received: 29 March 2012 / Revised: 24 April 2012 / Accepted: 22 May 2012 / Published: 29 May 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The multiple beneficial effects of Al2O3 nanoparticle addition to cast magnesium based systems (followed by extrusion) were investigated, constituting either: (a) enhanced strength; or (b) simultaneously enhanced strength and ductility of the corresponding magnesium alloys. AZ31 and ZK60A nanocomposites containing
[...] Read more.
The multiple beneficial effects of Al2O3 nanoparticle addition to cast magnesium based systems (followed by extrusion) were investigated, constituting either: (a) enhanced strength; or (b) simultaneously enhanced strength and ductility of the corresponding magnesium alloys. AZ31 and ZK60A nanocomposites containing Al2O3 nanoparticle reinforcement were each fabricated using solidification processing followed by hot extrusion. Compared to monolithic AZ31 (tension levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited higher yield strength (0.2% tensile yield strength (TYS)), ultimate strength (UTS), failure strain and work of fracture (WOF) (+19%, +21%, +113% and +162%, respectively). Compared to monolithic AZ31 (compression levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited higher yield strength (0.2% compressive yield strength (CYS)) and ultimate strength (UCS), lower failure strain and higher WOF (+5%, +5%, −4% and +11%, respectively). Compared to monolithic ZK60A (tension levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited lower 0.2% TYS and higher UTS, failure strain and WOF (−4%, +13%, +170% and +200%, respectively). Compared to monolithic ZK60A (compression levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited lower 0.2% CYS and higher UCS, failure strain and WOF (−10%, +7%, +15% and +26%, respectively). The capability of Al2O3 nanoparticles to enhance the properties of cast magnesium alloys in a way never seen before with micron length scale reinforcements is clearly demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanomaterials)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS)-Containing Polymer Nanocomposites
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(4), 445-475; doi:10.3390/nano2040445
Received: 19 September 2012 / Revised: 20 November 2012 / Accepted: 26 November 2012 / Published: 6 December 2012
Cited by 68 | PDF Full-text (1032 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hybrid materials with superior structural and functional properties can be obtained by incorporating nanofillers into polymer matrices. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles have attracted much attention recently due to their nanometer size, the ease of which these particles can be incorporated into polymeric
[...] Read more.
Hybrid materials with superior structural and functional properties can be obtained by incorporating nanofillers into polymer matrices. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles have attracted much attention recently due to their nanometer size, the ease of which these particles can be incorporated into polymeric materials and the unique capability to reinforce polymers. We review here the state of POSS-containing polymer nanocomposites. We discuss the influence of the incorporation of POSS into polymer matrices via chemical cross-linking or physical blending on the structure of nanocomposites, as affected by surface functional groups, and the POSS concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessReview Recent Advances in Nanostructured Thermoelectric Half-Heusler Compounds
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(4), 379-412; doi:10.3390/nano2040379
Received: 28 September 2012 / Revised: 5 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 14 November 2012
Cited by 65 | PDF Full-text (7714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Half-Heusler (HH) alloys have attracted considerable interest as promising thermoelectric (TE) materials in the temperature range around 700 K and above, which is close to the temperature range of most industrial waste heat sources. The past few years have seen nanostructuing play an
[...] Read more.
Half-Heusler (HH) alloys have attracted considerable interest as promising thermoelectric (TE) materials in the temperature range around 700 K and above, which is close to the temperature range of most industrial waste heat sources. The past few years have seen nanostructuing play an important role in significantly enhancing the TE performance of several HH alloys. In this article, we briefly review the recent progress and advances in these HH nanocomposites. We begin by presenting the structure of HH alloys and the different strategies that have been utilized for improving the TE properties of HH alloys. Next, we review the details of HH nanocomposites as obtained by different techniques. Finally, the review closes by highlighting several promising strategies for further research directions in these very promising TE materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanomaterials)

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