Special Issue "The Fabrication and Application of Nanofibers"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Shih-Jung (Sean) Liu

Chang Gung University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +886-3-2118166
Fax: +886-3-2118558
Interests: bioabsorbable medical devices; drug delivery; tissue engineering; nanofibers; core-shell microspheres; polymer processing; micro/nano-structure embossing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanofibers have attracted a great deal of attention over the past two decades (or longer) due to their unique physical properties, and are exploited as promising materials for a wide range of applications, including air and liquid filtration, battery separator, acoustic insulation, and biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, wound healing, tissue engineering, barrier textiles, etc. Nanofibers from a rich variety of materials, including polymers, composites, and ceramics, can be easily prepared using simple methods, such as electrospinning. Other techniques are also available for generating nanofibers, with diameters ranging from 5 to 500 nm or higher, which are 102–104 times smaller than fibers prepared using traditional processing methods. With this background, many researchers have worked toward the development of nanofibers for various applications.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials will attempt to cover the recent advancements in the fabrications and applications of these nanofibers.

Prof. Dr. Shih-Jung (Sean) Liu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanofibers

  • Fabrication techniques

  • Applications

Published Papers (9 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-9
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle An Antimicrobial Peptide-Loaded Gelatin/Chitosan Nanofibrous Membrane Fabricated by Sequential Layer-by-Layer Electrospinning and Electrospraying Techniques
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(5), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8050327
Received: 25 February 2018 / Revised: 22 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
PDF Full-text (2490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Guided bone regeneration (GBR) technique is widely used in the treatment of bone defects caused by peri-implantitis, periodontal disease, etc. However, the GBR membranes commonly used in clinical treatments currently have no antibacterial activity. Therefore, in this study, sequential layer-by-layer electrospinning and electrospraying
[...] Read more.
Guided bone regeneration (GBR) technique is widely used in the treatment of bone defects caused by peri-implantitis, periodontal disease, etc. However, the GBR membranes commonly used in clinical treatments currently have no antibacterial activity. Therefore, in this study, sequential layer-by-layer electrospinning and electrospraying techniques were utilized to prepare a gelatin (Gln) and chitosan (CS) composite GBR membrane containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAp) and antimicrobial peptide (Pac-525)-loaded PLGA microspheres (AMP@PLGA-MS), which was supposed to have osteogenic and antibacterial activities. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation showed that the morphology of the nanofibers and microspheres could be successfully produced. The diameters of the electrospun fibers with and without nHAp were 359 ± 174 nm and 409 ± 197 nm, respectively, and the mechanical properties of the membrane were measured according to the tensile stress-strain curve. Both the involvement of nHAp and the chemical crosslinking were able to enhance their tensile strength. In vitro cell culture of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) indicated that the Gln/CS composite membrane had an ideal biocompatibility with good cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. In addition, the Gln/CS membrane containing nHAp could promote osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. Furthermore, according to the in vitro drug release assay and antibacterial experiments, the composite GBR membrane containing AMP@PLGA-MS exhibited a long-term sustained release of Pac-525, which had bactericidal activity within one week and antibacterial activity for up to one month against two kinds of bacteria, S. aureus and E. coli. Our results suggest that the antimicrobial peptide-loaded Gln/CS composite membrane (AMP@PLGA-MS@Gln/CS/nHAp) has a great promise in bone generation-related applications for the unique functions of guiding bone regeneration and inhibiting bacterial infection as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Fabrication and Application of Nanofibers)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Electrospun Zein Fibers Incorporating Poly(glycerol sebacate) for Soft Tissue Engineering
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(3), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8030150
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (14478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For biomedical applications such as soft tissue engineering, plant proteins are becoming increasingly attractive. Zein, a class of prolamine proteins found in corn, offers excellent properties for application in the human body, but has inferior mechanical properties and lacks aqueous stability. In this
[...] Read more.
For biomedical applications such as soft tissue engineering, plant proteins are becoming increasingly attractive. Zein, a class of prolamine proteins found in corn, offers excellent properties for application in the human body, but has inferior mechanical properties and lacks aqueous stability. In this study, electrospun scaffolds from neat zein and zein blended with prepolymer and mildly cross-linked poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) were fabricated. Less toxic solvents like acetic acid and ethanol were used. The morphological, physiochemical and degradation properties of the as-spun fiber mats were determined. Neat zein and zein-PGS fiber mats with high zein concentration (24 wt % and 27 wt %) showed defect-free microstructures. The average fiber diameter decreased with increasing PGS amount from 0.7 ± 0.2 µm to 0.09 ± 0.03 µm. The addition of PGS to zein resulted in a seven-fold increase in ultimate tensile strength and a four-fold increase in failure strain, whereas the Young’s Modulus did not change significantly. Degradation tests in phosphate buffered saline revealed the morphological instability of zein containing fiber mats in contact with aqueous media. Therefore, the fibers were in situ cross-linked with N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC)/N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), which led to improved morphological stability in aqueous environment. The novel fibers have suitable properties for application in soft tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Fabrication and Application of Nanofibers)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Electrospun CuO-Nanoparticles-Modified Polycaprolactone @Polypyrrole Fibers: An Application to Sensing Glucose in Saliva
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8030133
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
PDF Full-text (8814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A non-invasive method for detecting glucose is pursued by millions of diabetic patients to improve their personal management of blood glucose. In this work, a novel CuO nanoparticles (NPs) decorated polycaprolactone@polypyrrole fibers modified indium-tin oxide (denoted as CuO/PCL@PPy/ITO) electrode has been fabricated by
[...] Read more.
A non-invasive method for detecting glucose is pursued by millions of diabetic patients to improve their personal management of blood glucose. In this work, a novel CuO nanoparticles (NPs) decorated polycaprolactone@polypyrrole fibers modified indium-tin oxide (denoted as CuO/PCL@PPy/ITO) electrode has been fabricated by electrospinning combined with the electrodeposition method for non-enzymatic detection of glucose in saliva fluid. The electrospun composite fibers exhibit high sensitivity for the glucose detection. The synergistic effect between CuO and PPy together with the unique three-dimensional net structure contributes the reliable selectivity, good test repeatability, large-scale production reproducibility in massive way, the reasonable stability and a high catalytic surface area to the sensor. Quantitative detection of glucose is determined in the linear range from 2 μM to 6 mM and the lowest detection limit is 0.8 μM. The CuO/PCL@PPy/ITO electrode shows potential for the non-invasive detection of salivary glucose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Fabrication and Application of Nanofibers)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Promotion of Vascular Morphogenesis of Endothelial Cells Co-Cultured with Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Polycaprolactone/Gelatin Nanofibrous Scaffolds
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(2), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8020117
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 18 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (32670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
New blood vessel formation is essential for tissue regeneration to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to maintain tissue metabolism. In the field of tissue engineering, in vitro fabrication of new artificial vessels has been a longstanding challenge. Here we developed a technique to
[...] Read more.
New blood vessel formation is essential for tissue regeneration to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to maintain tissue metabolism. In the field of tissue engineering, in vitro fabrication of new artificial vessels has been a longstanding challenge. Here we developed a technique to reconstruct a microvascular system using a polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin nanofibrous structure and a co-culture system. Using a simple electrospinning process, we fabricated three-dimensional mesh scaffolds to support the sprouting of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) along the electrospun nanofiber. The co-culture with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) supported greater sprouting of endothelial cells (ECs). In a two-dimensional culture system, angiogenic cell assembly produced more effective direct intercellular interactions and paracrine signaling from ADSCs to assist in the vascular formation of ECs, compared to the influence of growth factor. Although vascular endothelial growth factor and sphingosine-1-phosphate were present during the culture period, the presence of ADSCs was the most important factor for the construction of a cell-assembled structure in the two-dimensional culture system. On the contrary, HUVECs co-cultured on PCL/gelatin nanofiber scaffolds produced mature and functional microvessel and luminal structures with a greater expression of vascular markers, including platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and podocalyxin. Furthermore, both angiogenic factors and cellular interactions with ADSCs through direct contact and paracrine molecules contributed to the formation of enhanced engineered blood vessel structures. It is expected that the co-culture system of HUVECs and ADSCs on bioengineered PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds will promote robust and functional microvessel structures and will be valuable for the regeneration of tissue with restored blood vessels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Fabrication and Application of Nanofibers)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Two Polyester Nanofiber Types Containing the Biobased Monomer Isosorbide: Poly (Ethylene Glycol 1,4-Cyclohexane Dimethylene Isosorbide Terephthalate) and Poly (1,4-Cyclohexane Dimethylene Isosorbide Terephthalate)
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8020056
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2417 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The thermal and mechanical properties of two types of polyester nanofiber, poly (1,4-cyclohexanedimethylene isosorbide terephthalate) (PICT) copolymers and the terpolyester of isosorbide, ethylene glycol, 1,4-cyclohexane dimethanol, and terephthalic acid (PEICT), were investigated. This is the first attempt to fabricate PICT nanofiber via the
[...] Read more.
The thermal and mechanical properties of two types of polyester nanofiber, poly (1,4-cyclohexanedimethylene isosorbide terephthalate) (PICT) copolymers and the terpolyester of isosorbide, ethylene glycol, 1,4-cyclohexane dimethanol, and terephthalic acid (PEICT), were investigated. This is the first attempt to fabricate PICT nanofiber via the electrospinning method; comparison with PEICT nanofiber could give greater understanding of eco-friendly nanofibers containing biomass monomers. The nanofibers fabricated from each polymer show similar smooth and thin-and-long morphologies. On the other hand, the polymers exhibited significantly different mechanical and thermal properties; in particular, a higher tensile strength was observed for PICT nanofiber mat than for that of PEICT. We hypothesized that PICT has more trans-configuration than PEICT, resulting in enhancement of its tensile strength, and demonstrated this by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, PICT nanofibers showed clear crystallization behavior upon increased temperature, while PEICT nanofibers showed completely amorphous structure. Both nanofibers have better tensile properties and thermal stability than the typical polyester polymer, implying that they can be utilized in various industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Fabrication and Application of Nanofibers)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Self-Assembled AgNP-Containing Nanocomposites Constructed by Electrospinning as Efficient Dye Photocatalyst Materials for Wastewater Treatment
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8010035
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (5691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The design and self-assembly of graphene oxide (GO)-based composite membranes have attracted enormous attention due to their wide application in nanomaterial and environmental fields. In this work, we have successfully developed a strategy to fabricate new composite membranes based on poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid)/carboxyl-functionalized
[...] Read more.
The design and self-assembly of graphene oxide (GO)-based composite membranes have attracted enormous attention due to their wide application in nanomaterial and environmental fields. In this work, we have successfully developed a strategy to fabricate new composite membranes based on poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid)/carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide modified with silver nanoparticles (PVA/PAA/GO-COOH@AgNPs), which were prepared via thermal treatment and the electrospinning technique. Due to the strong π-π forces and strong electrostatic interactions of GO–COOH sheets, the prepared composite membranes and their lager surface areas were modified by scores of AgNPs, which demonstrated that a high-efficiency photocatalyst removed the organic dyes from the aqueous solutions. The prepared PVA/PAA/GO-COOH@AgNPs nanocomposite membranes showed a remarkable photocatalytic capacity in the catalytic degradation of the methylene blue dye solutions. Most importantly, the whole process was easy, mild, and eco-friendly. Additionally, the as-prepared membranes could be repeatedly used after the catalytic reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Fabrication and Application of Nanofibers)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Magnetic Nanofibers by Needleless Electrospinning from a Self-Assembling Polymer Ferrofluid Cone Array
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(9), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7090277
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 17 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetic nanofiber has been widely applied in biomedical fields due to its distinctive size, morphology, and properties. We proposed a novel needleless electrospinning method to prepare magnetic nanofibers from the self-assembling “Taylor cones” of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP)/Fe3O4 ferrofluid (PFF) under
[...] Read more.
Magnetic nanofiber has been widely applied in biomedical fields due to its distinctive size, morphology, and properties. We proposed a novel needleless electrospinning method to prepare magnetic nanofibers from the self-assembling “Taylor cones” of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP)/Fe3O4 ferrofluid (PFF) under the coincident magnetic and electric fields. The results demonstrated that a static PFF Rosensweig instability with a conical protrusion could be obtained under the magnetic field. The tip of the protrusion emitted an electrospinning jet under the coincident magnetic and electric fields. The needleless electrospinning showed a similar process phenomenon in comparison with conventional electrospinning. The prepared nanofibers were composed of Fe3O4 particles and PVP polymer. The Fe3O4 particles aggregated inside and on the surface of the nanofibers. The nanofibers prepared by needleless electrospinning exhibited similar morphology compared with the conventionally electrospun nanofibers. The nanofibers also exhibited good ferromagnetic and magnetic field responsive properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Fabrication and Application of Nanofibers)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Electrostatic Assembly of Platinum Nanoparticles along Electrospun Polymeric Nanofibers for High Performance Electrochemical Sensors
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(9), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7090236
Received: 9 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4686 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membrane conjugated with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) was fabricated by electrospinning and electrostatic assembly techniques. In this procedure, PAN was electrospun with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) together as precursor materials. First, amine groups were introduced onto PAN nanofibers, and then the
[...] Read more.
A novel polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membrane conjugated with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) was fabricated by electrospinning and electrostatic assembly techniques. In this procedure, PAN was electrospun with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) together as precursor materials. First, amine groups were introduced onto PAN nanofibers, and then the as-prepared negative-charged platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) were conjugated onto the surface of the amino-modified PAN nanofibers uniformly by the electrostatic interaction-mediated assembly. The fabricated PAN–PtNPs hybrid nanofibrous membrane was further utilized to modify the glassy carbon electrodes and was used for the fabrication of a non-enzymatic amperometric sensor to detect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The electrochemical results indicated that, due to the uniform dispersion of PtNPs and the electrostatic interaction between amine groups and PtNPs, the fabricated PAN–PtNPs nanofibrous membrane-based electrochemical sensor showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H2O2, and the chronoamperometry measurements illustrated that the fabricated sensor had a high sensitivity for detecting H2O2. It is anticipated that the strategies used in this work will not only guide the design and fabrication of functional polymeric nanofiber-based biomaterials and nanodevices, but also extend their potential applications in energy storage, cytology, and tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Fabrication and Application of Nanofibers)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Polymer-Based Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040259
Received: 17 February 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (34747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrospinning has been considered a promising and novel procedure to fabricate polymer nanofibers due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, and high production rate, making this technique highly relevant for both industry and academia. It is used to fabricate non-woven fibers with unique characteristics
[...] Read more.
Electrospinning has been considered a promising and novel procedure to fabricate polymer nanofibers due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, and high production rate, making this technique highly relevant for both industry and academia. It is used to fabricate non-woven fibers with unique characteristics such as high permeability, stability, porosity, surface area to volume ratio, ease of functionalization, and excellent mechanical performance. Nanofibers can be synthesized and tailored to suit a wide range of applications including energy, biotechnology, healthcare, and environmental engineering. A comprehensive outlook on the recent developments, and the influence of electrospinning on biomedical uses such as wound dressing, drug release, and tissue engineering, has been presented. Concerns regarding the procedural restrictions and research contests are addressed, in addition to providing insights about the future of this fabrication technique in the biomedical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Fabrication and Application of Nanofibers)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top