Special Issue "Photodynamic Therapy"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2016)
Prof. Dr. Norbert Lange
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the topical or systemic administration of a photosensitizer preferentially accumulated in a diseased target tissue. Irradiation of the diseased area triggers the production of toxic reactive oxygen species, subsequently leading to cell death. Furthermore, the photosensitizer’s ability to localize in diseases tissue can be used for the improved detection of disease because most of these molecules are intrinsically fluorescent. Most photosensitizers are based on porphyrins and phthalocyanines, though other chemical skeletons have been considered. Since its first description at the beginning of the 20th century, intensive research in PDT has provided profound insight into improved treatment modalities. Currently, PDT is developing intensively into other fields including bacterial inactivation and photochemical internalization.
Although not completely integrated into daily clinical practice in most areas, nowadays PDT represents of valid piece in today’s clinician’s toolbox for the curative and palliative treatment of several diseases, including head and neck cancer, age related macular degeneration, esophageal cancer, and skin cancer to name a few.
This special issue on photodynamic therapy is dedicated to the newest information in this research field. It should reflect a roundtable of the most proficient researches in photodynamic therapy. We expect an intensive debate and the latest findings on improved photosensitizers, innovative drug delivery strategies in PDT, and current and potential applications in clinical practice.
Prof. Dr. Norbert Lange
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: Photosensitizer Cd-Free Nanostructured Metal Chalcogenides for Cancer-Targeted Photodynamic Therapy
Authors: Juan Beltran-Huarac, Daysi Diaz-Diestra, Bibek Thapa, Brad R. Weiner and Gerardo Morell
Affiliation: Molecular Sciences Research Center, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00926, USA
Abstract: Overcoming the inefficient delivery of light to specific photosensitizers (PSs) is a big challenge in cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT) since it hinders the clinical treatment of tumors located deep under the skin. In PDT, reactive oxygen species (ROSs) produced by irradiation cause the shutdown of vessels depriving the tumor of nutrients and oxygen, and in turn an adverse effect on the immune system. Nonetheless, although PDT offers a disease site-specific treatment modality the classic PSs based on a porphyrin-like nucleus exhibit some limitations, such as poor solubility in body fluids and injectable solvents, bad photostability, poor amphilicity for tissue penetration, slow elimination from nontarget tissue (increasing skin photosensitivity) and significant systemic toxicity. Nanostructured materials (1–100 nm in size) as an emerging technology in the field of PDT have been demonstrated to circumvent most of such limitations. They can be artificially engineered to carry multiple theranostic agents to targeted tumor sites. However, recent studies on photosensitive Cd-based nanostructures (most widely used in PDT) indicate that the leeching of Cd2+ ions takes place as they are continuously exposed to harsh biological conditions, making them acutely toxic and hampering their in vivo applications. Since they are not completely immune to degradation, efforts have been devoted to seeking new alternatives. In this review, we focus on the recent developments of Cd-free nanostructured metal chalcogenides (NMCs) as alternative PSs, and study their high-energy transfer efficiency, rational designs, and potential applications in cancer-targeted PDT. We discuss the latest advancements in treating the correlation of the self-aggregation of NMCs with their passive tumor cell targeting, and highlight their ability to efficiently produce ROSs. Treatment of deep-seated tumors by using these PSs upon preferential uptake by tumor tissues due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect, is also reviewed. We finally summarize the main future perspectives of NMCs as next-generation PSs within the context of cancer theranostics.
Title: Particle Size Dependent Photodynamic Anticancer Activities of Multifunctional Magnetic Submicron Particles in Prostate Cancer
Authors: Kyong-Hoon Choi, Ki Chang Nam, Leszek Malkinski, Eun Ha Choi, Jin-Seung Jung, and Bong Joo Park
Affiliation: Kwangwoon University, Korea
Abstract: In this study, newly designed biocompatible multifunctional magnetic submicron particles (CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs) of well-defined sizes (60, 133, 245, and 335 nm) were fabricated for application as photodynamic therapeutic agents in cancer cells. In order to provide selective targeting of cancer cells and destruction of cancer cell functionality, the basic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) particles were covalently bonded with hematoporphyrin (HP) and folic acid (FA) molecules. The magnetic properties of the CoFe2O4 particles were finely adjusted by controlling the size of the primary CoFe2O4 nanograins and the secondary superstructure composited particles formed by aggregation of the nanograins. The prepared CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs exhibited high water solubility, good MRI capacity, and biocompatibility without any cytotoxicity in vitro. In particular, our CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs exhibited remarkable photodynamic anticancer efficiency via induction of apoptotic cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells in a particle size- and concentration-dependent manner. This size-dependent effect was determined by the specific surface area of each particle because the number of HP molecules increased with decreasing size and increasing surface area. These results indicated that our CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs may be applicable for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and may have tremendous potential as a therapeutic agent for MRI-based PDT owing to their high saturation value of magnetization and superparamagnetism.