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Special Issue "Dietary Antioxidants: Evidence of Protective Effects against Chronic Disease"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Fabio Galvano

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antioxidants are abundant micronutrients in human diet and evidence for their protective role against noncommunicable chronic diseases is emerging. Antioxidants are abundantly present in fruits and vegetables, nuts, cocoa, whole-grains, olive oil, and beverages, such as coffee and tea. It is known that a diet, plentiful in antioxidant-rich foods, may reduce the risk of chronic disease. However, due to the complexity of this relationship, a comprehensive understanding of the effects of bioactive food components is needed to better assume the role of complex dietary patterns in human health.

This Special Issue welcomes original research and reviews of literature concerning dietary antioxidants and the following issues:

  • observational studies on nutritional cohorts or case-control studies on the association with chronic disease;
  • clinical trials of dietary antioxidants on disease prevention;
  • level of evidence on the association with human health (systematic reviews and meta-analyses);
  • comprehensive reviews on dietary antioxidants;
  • in vitro and in vivo studies on molecular mechanisms and targets of dietary antioxidants.

Prof. Fabio Galvano
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • dietary
  • polyphenols
  • antioxidant-rich foods
  • antioxidant-rich beverages
  • nutrition
  • chronic disease

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dietary Consumption of Phenolic Acids and Prostate Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Sicily, Southern Italy
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2159; doi:10.3390/molecules22122159
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
Dietary polyphenols gained the interest of the scientific community due to their wide content in a variety of plant-derived foods and beverages commonly consumed, such as fruits, vegetables, coffee, tea, and cocoa. We aimed to investigate whether there was an association between
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Dietary polyphenols gained the interest of the scientific community due to their wide content in a variety of plant-derived foods and beverages commonly consumed, such as fruits, vegetables, coffee, tea, and cocoa. We aimed to investigate whether there was an association between dietary phenolic acid consumption and prostate cancer (PCa) in South Italy. We conducted a population-based case-control study from January 2015 to December 2016 in a single institution of the municipality of Catania, southern Italy (Registration number: 41/2015). Patients with elevated PSA and/or suspicious PCa underwent transperineal prostate biopsy. A total of 118 histopathological-verified PCa cases were collected and a total of 222 controls were selected from a sample of 2044 individuals. Dietary data were collected by using two food frequency questionnaires and data on the phenolic acids content in foods was obtained from the Phenol-Explorer database (www.phenol-explorer.eu). Association between dietary intake of phenolic acids and PCa was calculated through logistic regression analysis. We found lower levels of caffeic acid (2.28 mg/day vs. 2.76 mg/day; p < 0.05) and ferulic acid (2.80 mg/day vs. 4.04 mg/day; p < 0.01) in PCa when compared to controls. The multivariate logistic regression showed that both caffeic acid (OR = 0.32; p < 0.05) and ferulic acid (OR = 0.30; p < 0.05) were associated with reduced risk of PCa. Higher intake of hydroxybenzoic acids and caffeic acids were associated with lower risk of advanced PCa. High intake of caffeic acid and ferulic acid may be associated with reduced risk of PCa. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on the OVA-Induced Asthma Mice Model
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 2019; doi:10.3390/molecules22112019
Received: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Although astaxanthin has a variety of biological activities such as anti-oxidant effects, inhibitory effects on skin deterioration and anti-inflammatory effects, its effect on asthma has not been studied. In this paper, the inhibitory effect of astaxanthin on airway inflammation in a mouse model
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Although astaxanthin has a variety of biological activities such as anti-oxidant effects, inhibitory effects on skin deterioration and anti-inflammatory effects, its effect on asthma has not been studied. In this paper, the inhibitory effect of astaxanthin on airway inflammation in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. We evaluated the number of total cells, Th1/2 mediated inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and airway hyperresponsiveness as well as histological structure. The level of total IgE, IgG1, IgG2a, OVA-specific IgG1, and OVA-specific IgG2a were also examined. The oral administration of 50 mg/mL astaxanthin inhibited the respiratory system resistance, elastance, newtonian resistance, tissue damping, and tissue elastance. Also, astaxanthin suppressed the total cell number, IL-4, and IL-5, and increased the IFN-γ in the BALF. In the sera, total IgE, IgG1, and OVA-specific IgG1 were reduced by astaxanthin exposure and IgG2a and OVA-specific IgG2a were enhanced via oral administration of astaxanthin. Infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lung, production of mucus, lung fibrosis, and expression of caspase-1 or caspase-3 were suppressed in OVA-induced asthmatic animal treated with astaxanthin. These results suggest that astaxanthin may have therapeutic potential for treating asthma via inhibiting Th2-mediated cytokine and enhancing Th1-mediated cytokine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Olive (Olea europaea L.) Biophenols: A Nutriceutical against Oxidative Stress in SH-SY5Y Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1858; doi:10.3390/molecules22111858
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 29 October 2017
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Abstract
Plant biophenols have been shown to be effective in the modulation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology resulting from free radical-induced oxidative stress and imbalance of the redox chemistry of transition metal ions (e.g., iron and copper). On the basis of earlier reported pharmacological
[...] Read more.
Plant biophenols have been shown to be effective in the modulation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology resulting from free radical-induced oxidative stress and imbalance of the redox chemistry of transition metal ions (e.g., iron and copper). On the basis of earlier reported pharmacological activities, olive biophenols would also be expected to have anti-Alzheimer’s activity. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of individual olive biophenols (viz. caffeic acid, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, verbascoside, quercetin, rutin and luteolin) were evaluated using superoxide radical scavenging activity (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays. The identification and antioxidant activities in four commercial olive extracts—Olive leaf extractTM (OLE), Olive fruit extractTM (OFE), Hydroxytyrosol ExtremeTM (HTE), and Olivenol plusTM (OLP)—were evaluated using an on-line HPLC-ABTS•+ assay, and HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were the predominant biophenols in all the extracts. Among the single compounds examined, quercetin (EC50: 93.97 μM) and verbascoside (EC50: 0.66 mM) were the most potent SOR and H2O2 scavengers respectively. However, OLE and HTE were the highest SOR (EC50: 1.89 μg/mL) and H2O2 (EC50: 115.8 μg/mL) scavengers among the biophenol extracts. The neuroprotection of the biophenols was evaluated against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and copper (Cu)-induced toxicity in neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. The highest neuroprotection values (98% and 92%) against H2O2-induced and Cu-induced toxicities were shown by the commercial extract HTETM. These were followed by the individual biophenols, caffeic acid (77% and 64%) and verbascoside (71% and 72%). Our results suggest that olive biophenols potentially serve as agents for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, and other neurodegenerative ailments that are caused by oxidative stress. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Fenton Discoloration of Ultrasonicated Purple Cactus Pear Juice
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1344; doi:10.3390/molecules22081344
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of color, betaxanthin, and betacyanin pigments in the presence of Cu(II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (HO•) from ultrasonicated purple cactus pear juice at amplitudes of 40%, 60%, and 80%, in comparison to untreated sample. L*
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of color, betaxanthin, and betacyanin pigments in the presence of Cu(II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (HO•) from ultrasonicated purple cactus pear juice at amplitudes of 40%, 60%, and 80%, in comparison to untreated sample. L* parameter of juice treated at 40% and 80% amplitude for 25 and 15 min, respectively (11.3 and 9.3, respectively), were significantly higher compared to the control; b* and hue parameters of juice treated at 80%, 25 min showed values of 1.7 and 0.1, respectively. Color differences (ΔE) were lower (<3) for juices treated at high amplitude (80%) and short times (3–5 min). Juice treated at 40% 15 min, 60% 25 min, 80% 15 and 25 min presented high values of betacyanins (281.7 mg·L−1, 255.9 mg·L−1, 294.4 mg·L−1, and 276.7 mg·L−1, respectively). Betaxanthin values were higher in the juices treated at 40% 5 min and 80% 15 and 25 min (154.2 mg·L−1, 135.2 mg·L−1, and 128.5 mg·L−1, respectively). Purple cactus pear juice exhibited significant chelating activity of copper ions and great stability when exposed to HO•. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Bioactive Compounds in Brassicaceae Vegetables with a Role in the Prevention of Chronic Diseases
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 15; doi:10.3390/molecules23010015
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
The beneficial role of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity, is well-recognized. In this context, Brassicaceae are considered important vegetables due to several evidences of their health promoting effects that are associated to bioactive
[...] Read more.
The beneficial role of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity, is well-recognized. In this context, Brassicaceae are considered important vegetables due to several evidences of their health promoting effects that are associated to bioactive compounds present in the edible parts of the plants. In this review, the mechanisms of action and the factors regulating the levels of the bioactive compounds in Brassicaceae have been discussed. In addition, the impact of industrial and domestic processing on the amount of these compounds have been considered, in order to identify the best conditions that are able to preserve the functional properties of the Brassicaceae products before consumption. Finally, the main strategies used to increase the content of health-promoting metabolites in Brassica plants through biofortification have been analyzed. Full article
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