Special Issue "Metallic Materials and Manufacturing"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Denni Kurniawan

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Miri 98009, Malaysia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: manufacturing processes; biomaterials; composites; mechanical properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue covers all aspects of metals from its materials engineering and technology, as well as their manufacturing. Any type of article aligned with the journal (original research, case study, technical report, short communication, and reviews), within the scope of materials and manufacturing of metals is welcome for this Special Issue. Additionally included are selected papers from the 3rd International Materials, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering Conference (MIMEC2017) in Miri, Malaysia (www.mimec.me) and the 2nd International Conference on Materials and Manufacturing Engineering and Technology (CoMMET 2018) in Bali, Indonesia (www.commet.me). Please consider contributing to this Special Issue. Thank you and wishing you all the best. 

Dr. Denni  Kurniawan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Metals as engineering materials
  • Metallic biomaterials and medical devices
  • Functional materials, including semiconductors
  • Nanomaterials and nanotechnology
  • Surface engineering (coating, thin films, wear)
  • Materials characterization and testing, including non destructive test/evaluation
  • Manufacturing processes, including machining, metal forming, joining, and additive manufacturing
  • Modelling and simulations
  • Corrosion and degradation of metals

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Effects of Sample and Indenter Configurations of Nanoindentation Experiment on the Mechanical Behavior and Properties of Ductile Materials
Metals 2018, 8(6), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8060421
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 8 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
The nanoindentation test is frequently used as an alternate method to obtain the mechanical properties of ductile materials. However, due to the lack of information about the effects of the sample and indenter physical configurations, the accuracy of the extracted material properties in
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The nanoindentation test is frequently used as an alternate method to obtain the mechanical properties of ductile materials. However, due to the lack of information about the effects of the sample and indenter physical configurations, the accuracy of the extracted material properties in nanoindentation tests requires further evaluation that has been considered in this study. In this respect, a demonstrator ductile material, aluminum 1100, was tested using the Triboscope nanoindenter system with the Berkovich indenter. A 3D finite element simulation of the nanoindentation test was developed and validated through exact prediction of the structural response with measured data. The validated model was then employed to examine the effects of various test configurations on the load–displacement response of the sample material. These parameters were the different indenter edge-tip radii, different indentation depths, different sample tilts, and different friction conditions between the indenter and the material surface. Within the range of the indenter edge-tip radii examined, the average elastic modulus and hardness were 78.34 ± 14.58 and 1.6 ± 0.24 GPa, respectively. The different indentation depths resulted in average values for the elastic modulus and hardness of 77.03 ± 6.54 and 1.58 ± 0.17 GPa, respectively. The uneven surface morphology, as described by the inclination of the local indentation plane, indicated an exponential increase in the extracted values of elastic modulus and hardness, ranging from 71.83 and 1.47 GPa (for the reference case, θ = 0°) to 243.39 and 5.05 GPa at θ = 12°. The mechanical properties that were obtained through nanoindentation on the surface with 6° tilt or higher were outside the range for aluminum properties. The effect of friction on the resulting mechanical response and the properties of the material was negligible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Materials and Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Hot Deformation Behavior and Processing Map of Mg-3Sn-2Ca-0.4Al-0.4Zn Alloy
Metals 2018, 8(4), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8040216
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
Among newly developed TX (Mg-Sn-Ca) alloys, TX32 alloy strikes a good balance between ductility, corrosion, and creep properties. This study reports the influence of aluminum and zinc additions (0.4 wt % each) to TX32 alloy on its strength and deformation behavior. Uniaxial compression
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Among newly developed TX (Mg-Sn-Ca) alloys, TX32 alloy strikes a good balance between ductility, corrosion, and creep properties. This study reports the influence of aluminum and zinc additions (0.4 wt % each) to TX32 alloy on its strength and deformation behavior. Uniaxial compression tests were performed under various strain rates and temperature conditions in the ranges of 0.0003–10 s−1 and 300–500 °C, respectively. A processing map was developed for TXAZ3200 alloy, and it exhibits three domains that enable good hot workability in the ranges (1) 300–340 °C/0.0003–0.001 s−1; (2) 400–480 °C/0.01–1 s−1; and (3) 350–500 °C/0.0003–0.01 s−1. The occurrence of dynamic recrystallization in these domains was confirmed from the microstructural observations. The estimated apparent activation energy in Domains 2 and 3 (219 and 245 kJ/mole) is higher than the value of self-diffusion in magnesium. This is due to the formation of intermetallic phases in the matrix that generates back stress. The strength of TXAZ3200 alloy improved up to 150 °C as compared to TX32 alloy, suggesting solid solution strengthening due to Al and Zn. Also, the hot deformation behavior of TXAZ3200 alloy was compared in the form of processing maps with TX32, TX32-0.4Al, TX32-0.4Zn, and TX32-1Al-1Zn alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Materials and Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation of Laser Ablation Characteristics on Nickel-Coated Beryllium Copper
Metals 2018, 8(4), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8040211
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 25 March 2018
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Abstract
As electronic products are miniaturized, the components of the spring contact probe are made very fine. Current mechanical processing may make it difficult to perform micro-machining with a high degree of precision. A laser is often used for the high precision micro-machining due
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As electronic products are miniaturized, the components of the spring contact probe are made very fine. Current mechanical processing may make it difficult to perform micro-machining with a high degree of precision. A laser is often used for the high precision micro-machining due to its advantages such as a contact-free process, high energy concentration, fast processing time, and applicability to almost every material. The production of micro-electronics using nickel-coated copper is rapidly increasing and laser material processing is becoming a key processing technology owing to high precision requirements. Before applying laser material processing, it is necessary to understand the ablation characteristics of the materials. Therefore, this study systematically investigates the ablation characteristics of nickel-coated beryllium copper. Key laser parameters are pulse duration (4~200 ns) and the total accumulated energy (1~1000 mJ). The processed workpiece is evaluated by analyzing the heat affected zone (HAZ), material removal zone (MRZ), and roundness. Moreover, the surface characteristics such as a burr, spatter, and roundness shapes are analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Materials and Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Microstructure, Texture Evolution and Magnetic Properties of Fe-6.5 wt. % Si and Fe-6.5 wt. % Si-0.5 wt. % Cu Alloys during Rolling and Annealing Treatment
Metals 2018, 8(2), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8020144
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Sheets of Fe-6.5 wt. % Si and Fe-6.5 wt. % Si-0.5 wt. % Cu with the thickness of 0.3 mm have been produced by hot and warm rolling. The microstructure, texture evolution and magnetic properties of the two alloys were investigated. It was
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Sheets of Fe-6.5 wt. % Si and Fe-6.5 wt. % Si-0.5 wt. % Cu with the thickness of 0.3 mm have been produced by hot and warm rolling. The microstructure, texture evolution and magnetic properties of the two alloys were investigated. It was found that the addition of 0.5 wt. % Cu promoted the formation of shear bands during warm rolling, and enhanced the {110}<001> texture at surface layer and {111}<112> texture in the middle layer. After annealing treatment, a strong η fiber texture with a peak at {110}<001> was formed in the Fe-6.5 wt. % Si-0.5 wt. % Cu sample, while the Fe-6.5 wt. % Si sample was characterized by complex γ, η and λ fibers. The formation of dominating η fiber in the annealed Fe-6.5 wt. % Si-0.5 wt. % Cu sample is attributed to the shear bands formed in {111}<112> oriented grains. These shear bands in {111}<112> oriented grains acted as the nucleation sites of η oriented grains and promoted the growth of Goss oriented grains. The presence of strong η fiber with a peak at Goss in Fe-6.5 wt. % Si-0.5 wt. % Cu sample was the cause for the higher magnetic induction observed for this sample than for the Fe-6.5 wt. % Si sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Materials and Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle An Efficient Approach to Address Issues of Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) Incorporation in Aluminium Powders and Their Compaction Behaviour
Metals 2018, 8(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8020090
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 31 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (44224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The exceptional potential of the graphene has not been yet fully translated into the Al matrix to achieve high-performance Al nanocomposite. This is due to some critical issues faced by graphene during its processing such as the dispersion uniformity, structure damage, compatibility/wettability, and
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The exceptional potential of the graphene has not been yet fully translated into the Al matrix to achieve high-performance Al nanocomposite. This is due to some critical issues faced by graphene during its processing such as the dispersion uniformity, structure damage, compatibility/wettability, and low graphene embedding content in Al matrix. In the present work, a new integrative method was adopted and named as “solvent dispersion and ball milling” (SDBM) to address the issues above efficiently in a single approach. This strategy involves effective graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) solvent dispersion via surfactant decoration and solution ball milling employed to polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coated Al with various GNPs content (0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt. %). Flaky Al powder morphology attained by optimizing ball milling parameters and used for further processing with GNPs. Detailed powders characterizations were conducted to investigate morphology, graphene dispersion, group functionalities by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) spectroscopy and crystallinity by powder XRD (X-ray diffraction)analysis. Compaction behaviour and spring back effect of the GNPs/Al powders was also investigated at different compaction pressure (300 to 600 Mpa) and varying GNPs fractions. In response, green and sintered relative density (%) along with effect on the hardness of the nanocomposites samples were examined. Conclusively, in comparison with the unreinforced Al, GNP/Al nanocomposite with 1.5 wt. % GNPs exhibited the highest hardness gives 62% maximum increase than pure Al validates the effectiveness of the approach produces high fraction uniformly dispersed GNPs in Al matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Materials and Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Guidelines for Selecting Plugs Used in Thin-Walled Tube Drawing Processes of Metallic Alloys
Metals 2017, 7(12), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7120572
Received: 18 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, some practical guidelines to select the plug or set of plugs more adequate to carry out drawing processes of thin-walled tubes carried out with fixed conical inner plug are presented. For this purpose, the most relevant input parameters have been
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In this paper, some practical guidelines to select the plug or set of plugs more adequate to carry out drawing processes of thin-walled tubes carried out with fixed conical inner plug are presented. For this purpose, the most relevant input parameters have been considered in this study: the tube material, the most important geometrical parameters of the process (die semiangle, α , and cross-sectional area reduction, r ) and the friction conditions (Coulomb friction coefficients, μ 1 , between the die and the tube outer surface, and μ 2 , between the plug and the tube inner surface). Three work-hardening materials are analyzed: the annealed copper UNS C11000, the aluminum UNS A91100, and the stainless steel UNS S34000. The analysis is realized by means of the upper bound method (UBM), modelling the plastic deformation zone by triangular rigid zones (TRZ), under the validated assumption that the process occurs under plane strain conditions. The obtained results allow establishing, for each material, a group of geometrical parameters, friction conditions, a set of plugs that make possible to carry out the process under good conditions, and the optimum plug to carry out the process using the minimum amount of energy. The proposed model is validated by means of an own finite element analysis (FEA) carried out under different conditions and, in addition, by other finite element method (FEM) simulations and real experiments taken from other researchers found in the literature (called literature simulations and literature experimental results, respectively). As a main conclusion, it is possible to affirm that the plug that allows carrying out the process with minimum quantity of energy is cylindrical in most cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Materials and Manufacturing)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation of Forming Forces in Frictional Stir Incremental Forming of Aluminum Alloy AA6061-T6
Metals 2017, 7(11), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7110484
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
The incremental sheet forming (ISF) process is an emerging flexible sheet-forming process, which is adequate for the manufacturing of unique or small-volume batches. Single-point incremental forming (SPIF) is the original technology of incremental sheet-forming processes. In this article, frictional stir-assisted SPIF was used
[...] Read more.
The incremental sheet forming (ISF) process is an emerging flexible sheet-forming process, which is adequate for the manufacturing of unique or small-volume batches. Single-point incremental forming (SPIF) is the original technology of incremental sheet-forming processes. In this article, frictional stir-assisted SPIF was used to deform AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy. Experimental tests were conducted to measure the forming forces during this process for the concerned lightweight material. The influence of process parameters was investigated, which included tool rotation speed, feed rate, step size and tool diameter on the produced forming forces. A Taguchi technique for the design of experiment (DOE) and the varying wall angle conical frustum (VWACF) test was employed in this study. The results show that the rotation spindle speed was the most dominant parameter that affects the forming forces, followed by the step size, feed rate and tool diameter. In addition, the interaction between the feed rate and step size has a notable impact on the values of the forming forces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Materials and Manufacturing)
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