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Special Issue "Compound Semiconductor Materials"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2012)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jagdish Narayan

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, EB I, Room 3030, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 919 515 7642
Interests: ion implantation and defects in semiconductors; rapid thermal and transient thermal processing of semiconductors; laser-solid interactions; doping, diffusion and gettering in semiconductors and supersaturated semiconductor alloys for advanced electronic devices; high temperature superconductors; diamond and diamond-like thin films; atomic scale characterization of defects and interfaces; physical and chemical vapor deposition of thin films; pulsed laser deposition; Laser-MBE; atomic-resolution electron microscopy; electrical and optical properties; modeling of thin film growth and defects and interfaces; novel approaches to thin film epitaxy; semiconductor thin film heterostructures and solid-state devices; and nanostructured materials
Guest Editor
Dr. C. Lewis Reynolds Jr.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, EB I, Room 3002C, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: compound semiconductor materials and devices; electrical and optical properties; thin film epitaxial growth of group III-nitrides and group II-oxides; heteroepitaxy; strain relaxation in misfit systems; defects and interfaces; quantum well structures; electronic and photonic devices; nanostructured materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This special issue on Compound Semiconductor Materials will focus on thin film heterostructures of III-Vs, III-nitrides, II-oxides and perovskite-based materials across the misfit scale. Strain relaxation in large misfit systems involves both dislocation nucleation and propagation, which are more difficult in the nitride and oxide materials systems. Special emphasis will be placed on management of stresses and strains, defects and interfaces, and interactions of defects and chemistry at the nanoscale to create device-worthy materials. The volume will address the details of synthesis and processing, nanoscale characterization, novel electronic, photonic and magnetic properties, structure-property correlations, modeling and solid-state devices. It will include both layered and self-assembled nanostructures in the form of nanodots, rods and tubes. It is anticipated that the growth of novel thin film heterostructures with minimal defects will enable the next generation device structures, integration of multiple functionalities on a wafer for nanophotonics and nanoelectronics, and smart structures and sensors.

Prof. Jagdish (Jay) Narayan
Dr. C. Lew Reynolds
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • III-V materials
  • III-nitrides
  • II-oxides
  • thin film epitaxy
  • heteroepitaxy
  • misfit scale
  • nanostructures
  • integration on Si
  • solar cells
  • electronic devices
  • photonic devices

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Room Temperature Ferromagnetic, Anisotropic, Germanium Rich FeGe(001) Alloys
Materials 2013, 6(2), 612-625; doi:10.3390/ma6020612
Received: 4 December 2012 / Revised: 30 January 2013 / Accepted: 31 January 2013 / Published: 21 February 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (961 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ferromagnetic FexGe1−x with x = 2%–9% are obtained by Fe deposition onto Ge(001) at high temperatures (500 °C). Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) investigation evidenced the preservation of the (1 × 1) surface structure of Ge(001) with Fe deposition.
[...] Read more.
Ferromagnetic FexGe1−x with x = 2%–9% are obtained by Fe deposition onto Ge(001) at high temperatures (500 °C). Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) investigation evidenced the preservation of the (1 × 1) surface structure of Ge(001) with Fe deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) at Ge 3d and Fe 2p core levels evidenced strong Fe diffusion into the Ge substrate and formation of Ge-rich compounds, from FeGe3 to approximately FeGe2, depending on the amount of Fe deposited. Room temperature magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) evidenced ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature, with about 0.1 Bohr magnetons per Fe atom, and also a clear uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with the in-plane  easy magnetization axis. This compound is a good candidate for promising applications in the field of semiconductor spintronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compound Semiconductor Materials)
Open AccessArticle “Property Phase Diagrams” for Compound Semiconductors through Data Mining
Materials 2013, 6(1), 279-290; doi:10.3390/ma6010279
Received: 10 December 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 15 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper highlights the capability of materials informatics to recreate “property phase diagrams” from an elemental level using electronic and crystal structure properties. A judicious selection of existing data mining techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis, Partial Least Squares Regression, and Correlated Function
[...] Read more.
This paper highlights the capability of materials informatics to recreate “property phase diagrams” from an elemental level using electronic and crystal structure properties. A judicious selection of existing data mining techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis, Partial Least Squares Regression, and Correlated Function Expansion, are linked synergistically to predict bandgap and lattice parameters for different stoichiometries of GaxIn1−xAsySb1−y, starting from fundamental elemental descriptors. In particular, five such elemental descriptors, extracted from within a database of highly correlated descriptors, are shown to collectively capture the widely studied “bowing” of energy bandgaps seen in compound semiconductors. This is the first such demonstration, to our knowledge, of establishing relationship between discrete elemental descriptors and bandgap bowing, whose underpinning lies in the fundamentals of solid solution thermodyanamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compound Semiconductor Materials)
Open AccessArticle Growth of High-Density Zinc Oxide Nanorods on Porous Silicon by Thermal Evaporation
Materials 2012, 5(12), 2817-2832; doi:10.3390/ma5122817
Received: 29 October 2012 / Revised: 28 November 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (1563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The formation of high-density zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods on porous silicon (PS) substrates at growth temperatures of 600–1000 °C by a simple thermal evaporation of zinc (Zn) powder in the presence of oxygen (O2) gas was systematically investigated. The high-density growth
[...] Read more.
The formation of high-density zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods on porous silicon (PS) substrates at growth temperatures of 600–1000 °C by a simple thermal evaporation of zinc (Zn) powder in the presence of oxygen (O2) gas was systematically investigated. The high-density growth of ZnO nanorods with (0002) orientation over a large area was attributed to the rough surface of PS, which provides appropriate planes to promote deposition of Zn or ZnOx seeds as nucleation sites for the subsequent growth of ZnO nanorods. The geometrical morphologies of ZnO nanorods are determined by the ZnOx seed structures, i.e., cluster or layer structures. The flower-like hexagonal-faceted ZnO nanorods grown at 600 °C seem to be generated from the sparsely distributed ZnOx nanoclusters. Vertically aligned hexagonal-faceted ZnO nanorods grown at 800 °C may be inferred from the formation of dense arrays of ZnOx clusters. The formation of disordered ZnO nanorods formed at 1000 °C may due to the formation of a ZnOx seed layer. The growth mechanism involved has been described by a combination of self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) and vapor-solid (VS) mechanism. The results suggest that for a more precise study on the growth of ZnO nanostructures involving the introduction of seeds, the initial seed structures must be taken into account given their significant effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compound Semiconductor Materials)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Spectroscopy of Deep Traps in Cu2S-CdS Junction Structures
Materials 2012, 5(12), 2597-2608; doi:10.3390/ma5122597
Received: 8 November 2012 / Revised: 23 November 2012 / Accepted: 23 November 2012 / Published: 4 December 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cu2S-CdS junctions of the polycrystalline material layers have been examined by combining the capacitance deep level transient spectroscopy technique together with white LED light additional illumination (C-DLTS-WL) and the photo-ionization spectroscopy (PIS) implemented by the photocurrent probing. Three types of junction
[...] Read more.
Cu2S-CdS junctions of the polycrystalline material layers have been examined by combining the capacitance deep level transient spectroscopy technique together with white LED light additional illumination (C-DLTS-WL) and the photo-ionization spectroscopy (PIS) implemented by the photocurrent probing. Three types of junction structures, separated by using the barrier capacitance characteristics of the junctions and correlated with XRD distinguished precipitates of the polycrystalline layers, exhibit different deep trap spectra within CdS substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compound Semiconductor Materials)
Open AccessArticle First Principles Study on Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Ternary GaAs:Bi Alloy
Materials 2012, 5(12), 2486-2497; doi:10.3390/ma5122486
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 20 August 2012 / Accepted: 21 November 2012 / Published: 26 November 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The electronic structure and optical properties of ternary GaAs:Bi alloy are investigated by first principles calculations. It is found that the band gap of GaAs1-xBix decreases monotonously with the increasing of Bi concentration, resulting in the fundamental absorption edge and
[...] Read more.
The electronic structure and optical properties of ternary GaAs:Bi alloy are investigated by first principles calculations. It is found that the band gap of GaAs1-xBix decreases monotonously with the increasing of Bi concentration, resulting in the fundamental absorption edge and main absorption peaks of GaAs1-xBix shifting toward lower energy with the increase of the Bi content. The optical constants of GaAs1-xBix, such as the optical absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical conductivity, are greater than those of pure GaAs when x > 3.1%, but less than those of pure GaAs when x < 3.1%, which is primarily decided by the intraband level repulsions between Bi-induced states and host states on the valence bands; the contribution of Bi-6s, Bi-6p orbitals and Ga-4p, Ga-4s orbitals on conduction bands is also crucial. Bi doping plays an important role in the modulation of the static dielectric constant and the static refractive index. These results suggest a promising application of GaAs1-xBix alloy as a semiconductor saturable absorber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compound Semiconductor Materials)
Open AccessArticle Graphene as a Buffer Layer for Silicon Carbide-on-Insulator Structures
Materials 2012, 5(11), 2270-2279; doi:10.3390/ma5112270
Received: 14 September 2012 / Revised: 4 November 2012 / Accepted: 6 November 2012 / Published: 9 November 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report an innovative technique for growing the silicon carbide-on-insulator (SiCOI) structure by utilizing polycrystalline single layer graphene (SLG) as a buffer layer. The epitaxial growth was carried out using a hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (HM-CVD) technique. Cubic SiC (3C-SiC) thin film in
[...] Read more.
We report an innovative technique for growing the silicon carbide-on-insulator (SiCOI) structure by utilizing polycrystalline single layer graphene (SLG) as a buffer layer. The epitaxial growth was carried out using a hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (HM-CVD) technique. Cubic SiC (3C-SiC) thin film in (111) domain was realized at relatively low substrate temperature of 750 °C. 3C-SiC energy bandgap of 2.2 eV was confirmed. The Si-O absorption band observed in the grown film can be caused by the out-diffusion of the oxygen atom from SiO2 substrate or oxygen doping during the cleaning process. Further experimental works by optimizing the cleaning process, growth parameters of the present growth method, or by using other growth methods, as well, are expected to realize a high quality SiCOI structure, thereby opening up the way for a breakthrough in the development of advanced ULSIs with multifunctionalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compound Semiconductor Materials)
Open AccessArticle Electronic and Optical Properties of Substitutional and Interstitial Si-Doped ZnO
Materials 2012, 5(11), 2088-2100; doi:10.3390/ma5112088
Received: 9 August 2012 / Revised: 15 October 2012 / Accepted: 23 October 2012 / Published: 29 October 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (748 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigates the formation energies, electronic structures, and optical properties of pure and Si-doped ZnO using density functional theory and the Hubbard U (DFT + Ud + Up) method. The difference in lattice constants between calculated results and experimental
[...] Read more.
This study investigates the formation energies, electronic structures, and optical properties of pure and Si-doped ZnO using density functional theory and the Hubbard U (DFT + Ud + Up) method. The difference in lattice constants between calculated results and experimental measurements is within 1%, and the calculated band gap of pure ZnO is in excellent agreement with experimental values. This study considers three possible Si-doped ZnO structures including the substitution of Si for Zn (Sis(Zn)), interstitial Si in an octahedron (Sii(oct)), and interstitial Si in a tetrahedron (Sii(tet)). Results show that the formation energy of Sis(Zn) defects is the lowest, indicating that Sis(Zn) defects are formed more easily than Sii(oct) and Sii(tet). All three of the Si defect models exhibited n-type conductive characteristics, and except for the Sii(oct) mode the optical band gap expanded beyond that of pure ZnO. In both the Sii(oct) and Sii(tet) models, a heavier effective mass decreased carrier mobility, and deeper donor states significantly decreased transmittance. Therefore, the existence of interestitial Si atoms was bad for the electric and optical properties of ZnO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compound Semiconductor Materials)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Surface Stability and Growth Kinetics of Compound Semiconductors: An Ab Initio-Based Approach
Materials 2013, 6(8), 3309-3360; doi:10.3390/ma6083309
Received: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 30 July 2013 / Published: 6 August 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (3553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We review the surface stability and growth kinetics of III-V and III-nitride semiconductors. The theoretical approach used in these studies is based on ab initio calculations and includes gas-phase free energy. With this method, we can investigate the influence of growth conditions, such
[...] Read more.
We review the surface stability and growth kinetics of III-V and III-nitride semiconductors. The theoretical approach used in these studies is based on ab initio calculations and includes gas-phase free energy. With this method, we can investigate the influence of growth conditions, such as partial pressure and temperature, on the surface stability and growth kinetics. First, we examine the feasibility of this approach by comparing calculated surface phase diagrams of GaAs(001) with experimental results. In addition, the Ga diffusion length on GaAs(001) during molecular beam epitaxy is discussed. Next, this approach is systematically applied to the reconstruction, adsorption and incorporation on various nitride semiconductor surfaces. The calculated results for nitride semiconductor surface reconstructions with polar, nonpolar, and semipolar orientations suggest that adlayer reconstructions generally appear on the polar and the semipolar surfaces. However, the stable ideal surface without adsorption is found on the nonpolar surfaces because the ideal surface satisfies the electron counting rule. Finally, the stability of hydrogen and the incorporation mechanisms of Mg and C during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compound Semiconductor Materials)
Open AccessReview Degradation Mechanisms for GaN and GaAs High Speed Transistors
Materials 2012, 5(12), 2498-2520; doi:10.3390/ma5122498
Received: 24 October 2012 / Revised: 23 November 2012 / Accepted: 23 November 2012 / Published: 27 November 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a review of reliability issues in AlGaN/GaN and AlGaAs/GaAs high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) as well as Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) in the AlGaAs/GaAs materials systems. Because of the complex nature and multi-faceted operation modes of these devices, reliability studies must
[...] Read more.
We present a review of reliability issues in AlGaN/GaN and AlGaAs/GaAs high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) as well as Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) in the AlGaAs/GaAs materials systems. Because of the complex nature and multi-faceted operation modes of these devices, reliability studies must go beyond the typical Arrhenius accelerated life tests. We review the electric field driven degradation in devices with different gate metallization, device dimensions, electric field mitigation techniques (such as source field plate), and the effect of device fabrication processes for both DC and RF stress conditions. We summarize the degradation mechanisms that limit the lifetime of these devices. A variety of contact and surface degradation mechanisms have been reported, but differ in the two device technologies: For HEMTs, the layers are thin and relatively lightly doped compared to HBT structures and there is a metal Schottky gate that is directly on the semiconductor. By contrast, the HBT relies on pn junctions for current modulation and has only Ohmic contacts. This leads to different degradation mechanisms for the two types of devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compound Semiconductor Materials)

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