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Materials 2012, 5(12), 2817-2832; doi:10.3390/ma5122817

Growth of High-Density Zinc Oxide Nanorods on Porous Silicon by Thermal Evaporation

1 Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor, Malaysia 2 School of Electrical System Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kuala Perlis 02000, Perlis, Malaysia 3 Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2137, Japan 4 Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia 5 Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, Kuala Lumpur 54100, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 October 2012 / Revised: 28 November 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compound Semiconductor Materials)
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The formation of high-density zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods on porous silicon (PS) substrates at growth temperatures of 600–1000 °C by a simple thermal evaporation of zinc (Zn) powder in the presence of oxygen (O2) gas was systematically investigated. The high-density growth of ZnO nanorods with (0002) orientation over a large area was attributed to the rough surface of PS, which provides appropriate planes to promote deposition of Zn or ZnOx seeds as nucleation sites for the subsequent growth of ZnO nanorods. The geometrical morphologies of ZnO nanorods are determined by the ZnOx seed structures, i.e., cluster or layer structures. The flower-like hexagonal-faceted ZnO nanorods grown at 600 °C seem to be generated from the sparsely distributed ZnOx nanoclusters. Vertically aligned hexagonal-faceted ZnO nanorods grown at 800 °C may be inferred from the formation of dense arrays of ZnOx clusters. The formation of disordered ZnO nanorods formed at 1000 °C may due to the formation of a ZnOx seed layer. The growth mechanism involved has been described by a combination of self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) and vapor-solid (VS) mechanism. The results suggest that for a more precise study on the growth of ZnO nanostructures involving the introduction of seeds, the initial seed structures must be taken into account given their significant effects.
Keywords: zinc oxide; nanorods; porous silicon; thermal evaporation; vapor-liquid-solid zinc oxide; nanorods; porous silicon; thermal evaporation; vapor-liquid-solid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Rusli, N.I.; Tanikawa, M.; Mahmood, M.R.; Yasui, K.; Hashim, A.M. Growth of High-Density Zinc Oxide Nanorods on Porous Silicon by Thermal Evaporation. Materials 2012, 5, 2817-2832.

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