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Special Issue "Advances in Pillared Clays and Similar Materials: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2017

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Antonio Gil

Departamento de Química Aplicada, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Miguel A. Vicente

GIR-QUESCAT, Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the first works introducing the aluminum intercalated clay family in the early 1970s, interest in the synthesis of Pillared InterLayered Clays (PILCs) has increased tremendously, especially research into the properties and energetic and environmental applications. After our comprehensive reviews and book on the synthesis and catalytic applications of these materials, new references have appeared in the literature and the interest in this field is continuously increasing. The aim of this Special Issue is to collect the recent advances developed considering this family of solids. Contributions on similar materials, as intercalated clays, clay-based nanocomposites or intercalated hydrotalcites, are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Gil
Prof. Dr. Miguel A. Vicente
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Pillared interlayered clay
  • Pillared clay
  • Clay
  • Pillaring
  • Montmorillonite
  • Saponite
  • Catalysis
  • Catalytic applications
  • Metal supported catalysts
  • Fenton
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Advanced oxidation processes
  • Photocatalysis
  • Volatile organic oxidation
  • Green oxidation reactions
  • Adsorption
  • Dyes adsorption
  • Emergent contaminants adsorption

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Microstructural Modification and Characterization of Sericite
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1182; doi:10.3390/ma10101182
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 7 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
Activated sericite was prepared by thermal modification, acid activation and sodium modification, and it was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), N2 adsorption test, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results
[...] Read more.
Activated sericite was prepared by thermal modification, acid activation and sodium modification, and it was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), N2 adsorption test, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicated that the crystallinity of raw sericite decreased after thermal modification; the pores with sizes between 5 nm to 10 nm of thermal-modified sericite have collapsed and the surface area increased after thermal modification. The dissolving-out amount of Al3+ reached ca. 31 mg/g in the optimal processing conditions during acid activation; cation exchange capacity (CEC) of acid-treated sericite increased to 56.37 mmol/100 g meq/g after sodium modification compared with that of raw sericite (7.42 mmol/100 g). The activated sericite is a promising matrix for clay-polymer nanocomposites. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Application of Functionalized Pillared Porous Phosphate Heterostructures for the Removal of Textile Dyes from Wastewater
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1111; doi:10.3390/ma10101111
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
A synthesized functionalized pillared porous phosphate heterostructure (PPH), surface functionalized phenyl group, has been used to remove the dye Acid Blue 113 from wastewater. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study its structure. The specific surface area of
[...] Read more.
A synthesized functionalized pillared porous phosphate heterostructure (PPH), surface functionalized phenyl group, has been used to remove the dye Acid Blue 113 from wastewater. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study its structure. The specific surface area of this was 498 m2/g. The adsorption capacities of PPH and phenyl surface functionalized (Φ-PPH) were 0.0400 and 0.0967 mmol/g, respectively, with a dye concentration of 10−5 M when well fitted with SIPS and Langmuir isotherms respectively (pH 6.5, 25 °C). The incorporation of the dye to the adsorbent material was monitored by the S content of the dye. It is suggested as an alternative for Acid Blue 113 remediation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modification of 13X Molecular Sieve by Chitosan for Adsorptive Removal of Cadmium from Simulated Wastewater
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1101; doi:10.3390/ma10091101
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
Chitosan was used to modify a 13X molecular sieve to improve its cadmium removal capability. After being modified with 2% chitosan-acetate for 2 h at 30 °C, significant uptake of Cd2+ could be achieved. The uptake of Cd2+ on the modified
[...] Read more.
Chitosan was used to modify a 13X molecular sieve to improve its cadmium removal capability. After being modified with 2% chitosan-acetate for 2 h at 30 °C, significant uptake of Cd2+ could be achieved. The uptake of Cd2+ on the modified 13X molecular sieve followed the Langmuir isotherms with a capacity of 1 mg/g. The kinetics of Cd2+ removal by modified 13X molecular sieve followed a pseudo second-order reaction, suggesting chemisorption or surface complexation. The Cd2+ removal with a sorbent dose of 2 g/L from an initial concentration of 100 μg/L reached more than 95% in 90 min. The equilibrium Cd2+ concentration was <5 μg/L, which meets the requirements of “Standards for Irrigation Water Quality” (GB5084-2005) (10 μg/L) and MCL and MCLG for groundwater and drinking water (5 μg/L) set by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Ag-Coated Heterostructures of ZnO-TiO2/Delaminated Montmorillonite as Solar Photocatalysts
Materials 2017, 10(8), 960; doi:10.3390/ma10080960
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
Heterostructures based on ZnO-TiO2/delaminated montmorillonite coated with Ag have been prepared by sol–gel and photoreduction procedures, varying the Ag and ZnO contents. They have been thoroughly characterized by XRD, WDXRF, UV–Vis, and XPS spectroscopies, and N2 adsorption, SEM, and TEM.
[...] Read more.
Heterostructures based on ZnO-TiO2/delaminated montmorillonite coated with Ag have been prepared by sol–gel and photoreduction procedures, varying the Ag and ZnO contents. They have been thoroughly characterized by XRD, WDXRF, UV–Vis, and XPS spectroscopies, and N2 adsorption, SEM, and TEM. In all cases, the montmorillonite was effectively delaminated with the formation of TiO2 anatase particles anchored on the clay layer’s surface, yielding porous materials with high surface areas. The structural and textural properties of the heterostructures synthesized were unaffected by the ZnO incorporated. The photoreduction led to solids with Ag nanoparticles decorating the surface. These materials were tested as photocatalysts for the degradation of several emerging contaminants with different nitrogen-bearing chemical structures under solar light. The catalysts yielded high rates of disappearance of the starting pollutants and showed quite stable performance upon successive applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study of CeO2 Modified AlNi Mixed Pillared Clays Supported Palladium Catalysts for Benzene Adsorption/Desorption-Catalytic Combustion
Materials 2017, 10(8), 949; doi:10.3390/ma10080949
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
A new functional AlNi-pillared clays (AlNi-PILC) with a large surface area and pore volume was synthesized. The performance of adsorption/desorption-catalytic combustion over CeO2-modified Pd/AlNi-PILC catalysts was also studied. The results showed that the d001-value and specific surface area (
[...] Read more.
A new functional AlNi-pillared clays (AlNi-PILC) with a large surface area and pore volume was synthesized. The performance of adsorption/desorption-catalytic combustion over CeO2-modified Pd/AlNi-PILC catalysts was also studied. The results showed that the d001-value and specific surface area (SBET) of AlNi-PILC reached 2.11 nm and 374.8 m2/g, respectively. The large SBET and the d001-value improved the high capacity for benzene adsorption. Also, the strong interaction between PdCe mixed oxides and AlNi-PILC led to the high dispersion of PdO and CeO2 on the support, which was responsible for the high catalytic performance. Especially, 0.2% Pd/12.5% Ce/AlNi-PILC presented high performance for benzene combustion at 240 °C and high CO2 selectivity. Also, the combustion temperatures were lower compared to the desorption temperatures, which demonstrated that it could accomplish benzene combustion during the desorption process. Furthermore, its activity did not decrease after continuous reaction for 1000 h in dry air, and it also displayed good resistance to water and the chlorinated compound, making it a promising catalytic material for the elimination of volatile organic compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microwave-Assisted Pillaring of a Montmorillonite with Al-Polycations in Concentrated Media
Materials 2017, 10(8), 886; doi:10.3390/ma10080886
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 29 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
A montmorillonite has been intercalated with Al3+ polycations, using concentrated solutions and clay mineral dispersions. The reaction has been assisted by microwave radiation, yielding new intercalated solids and leading to Al-pillared solids after their calcination at 500 °C. The solids were characterized
[...] Read more.
A montmorillonite has been intercalated with Al3+ polycations, using concentrated solutions and clay mineral dispersions. The reaction has been assisted by microwave radiation, yielding new intercalated solids and leading to Al-pillared solids after their calcination at 500 °C. The solids were characterized by elemental chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analyses, and nitrogen adsorption. The evolution of the properties of the materials was discussed as a function of the preparation conditions. Microwave treatment for 2.5 min provided correctly pillared solids. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Scale Up Pillaring: A Study of the Parameters That Influence the Process
Materials 2017, 10(7), 712; doi:10.3390/ma10070712
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
PDF Full-text (968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pillared clays (PILCs) are interesting materials mostly due to their high basal spacing and surface area, which make them suitable for adsorption and catalysis applications, for example. However, the production of these materials on industrial scale is dependent on research about what parameters
[...] Read more.
Pillared clays (PILCs) are interesting materials mostly due to their high basal spacing and surface area, which make them suitable for adsorption and catalysis applications, for example. However, the production of these materials on industrial scale is dependent on research about what parameters influence the process. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate what parameters influence the pillaring procedure. For this, pillared clays were synthesized following three series of experiments. In the first series, the effect of the amount of water in a clay suspension was evaluated. The best results were obtained by using diluted suspensions (1 g of clay to 100 mL of water). In the second series, several pillaring methods were tested. In the third series, the amount of pillared clay was raised to 50 g. Fifty grams of pillared clay can be obtained using the pillaring agent synthesized at 60 °C with further aging for 24 h, and this material exhibited high basal spacing (17.6 Å) and surface area (233 m2/g). These values are comparable with the traditional pillaring method using only 3 g of clay. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reuse of Pillaring Agent in Sequential Bentonite Pillaring Processes
Materials 2017, 10(7), 705; doi:10.3390/ma10070705
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
PDF Full-text (2018 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work describes the synthesis and characterization of pillared clays using a new pillaring method: the reuse of the pillaring solution. First, an Al pillared clay (PILC) was synthesized, and after filtration, the pillaring agent was stored and reused for an additional three
[...] Read more.
This work describes the synthesis and characterization of pillared clays using a new pillaring method: the reuse of the pillaring solution. First, an Al pillared clay (PILC) was synthesized, and after filtration, the pillaring agent was stored and reused for an additional three pillaring procedures (P1, P2, and P3). The filtered pillaring solution was stored for one year and then reused for one additional pillaring procedure (P4). The samples were analyzed using XRD, N2 physisorption measurements and chemical analysis (EDX). All of the samples exhibited basal spacings larger than 17 Å and BET surface areas greater than 160 m2/g. After the P4 pillaring, the pillaring agent was precipitated with a Na2SO4 solution, and the resulting solid was analyzed using XRD and SEM. The results indicated that even after a total of five pillaring procedures, Al13 ions were still present in solution. Therefore, it is possible to reuse the pillaring solution four times and to even store the solution for one year, which is important from an industrial perspective. Full article
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