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Special Issue "Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (9 April 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Anne Marie Healy

Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
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Interests: pharmaceutical material science; preformulation and formulation of pharmaceuticals; amorphous solids; co-crystals; formulating poorly soluble drugs; pharmaceutical processing; pulmonary drug delivery and formulation stability
Guest Editor
Assist. Prof. Eduardo Ruiz-Hernandez

Pharmaceutical Chemistry of Nanocarrier Drug Delivery Systems, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences - Panoz Institute, Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanomedicine; materials chemistry; drug/gene delivery; tissue engineering
Guest Editor
Assist. Prof. Juan Luis Vivero-Escoto

Department of Chemistry, College of Liberal Arts & Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: organic/materials chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials have recently become one of the most active research fields in the areas of engineering, chemistry, solid state physics, biotechnology and biomedicine. One reason for this interest is that nanomaterials display novel and often enhanced properties compared to traditional materials, which opens up the potential for new technological applications. The use of nanomaterials in the biomedical field presents many revolutionary opportunities in the fight against all kinds of cancer, cardiac and neurodegenerative disorders, infection and other diseases. The nanoparticle platforms that have been extensively explored for biomedical applications are predominantly either purely inorganic or organic materials. For example organic nanomaterials such as nanocrystals, liposomes, dendrimers, hyper-branched organic polymers, micelles and polymeric hydrogel nanoparticles have been widely used as imaging and therapeutic agents. Recently, inorganic nanomaterials such as quantum dots, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, metallic nanoparticles and metal oxides have also attracted great attention for biomedical applications.

In another relevant example, hybrid nanoparticles are composed of both inorganic and organic components that can not only retain the beneficial features of both inorganic and organic nanomaterials, but also possess unique advantages over the other two types. For instance, the ability to combine a multitude of organic and inorganic components in a modular fashion allows for systematic tuning of the properties for biomedical applications. Hybrid nanoparticles have been proposed for the targeted release of diagnostic agents and drugs, and even as stimuli responsive nanocarriers to enhance therapy selectivity. The combination of these materials with current efforts to identify genes, proteins and metabolites implicated in human disease and use system biology approaches to develop new prognostic tools and more targeted therapies for patients, will dramatically impact healthcare in the coming years.

This Special Issue focuses on the use of organic/inorganic or hybrid nanomaterials for biomedical applications. We invite full papers, communications and reviews covering one or several of the topics included in (or related to) the keywords below.

Prof. Dr. Anne Marie Healy
Asstis. Prof. Eduardo Ruiz-Hernandez
Asstit. Prof. Juan Luis Vivero-Escoto
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • drug delivery

  • biosensing

  • biomedical imaging

  • diagnostics

  • tissue regeneration

  • cancer

  • infection

  • cardiovascular diseases

  • pulmonary diseases

  • protein delivery

  • gene delivery

  • photodynamic therapy

  • photothermal therapy

  • theranostics

  • magnetic hyperthermia

  • nanoparticle manufacture and processing

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Role of Mucin in the Toxicological Impact of Polystyrene Nanoparticles
Materials 2018, 11(5), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050724
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
The development of novel oral drug delivery systems is an expanding area of research and both new approaches for improving their efficacy and the investigation of their potential toxicological effect are crucial and should be performed in parallel. Polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) have been
[...] Read more.
The development of novel oral drug delivery systems is an expanding area of research and both new approaches for improving their efficacy and the investigation of their potential toxicological effect are crucial and should be performed in parallel. Polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) have been used for the production of diagnostic and therapeutic nanosystems, are widely used in food packaging, and have also served as models for investigating NPs interactions with biological systems. The mucous gel layer that covers the epithelium of the gastrointestinal system is a complex barrier-exchange system that it is mainly constituted by mucin and it constitutes the first physical barrier encountered after ingestion. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of polystyrene NPs on mucin and its potential role during NP–cell interactions. For this purpose, we evaluated the interaction of polystyrene NPs with mucin in dispersion by dynamic light scattering and with a deposited layer of mucin using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technology. Next, we measured cell viability and the apoptotic state of three enterocyte-like cell lines that differ in their ability to produce mucin, after their exposure to the NPs. Positive charged NPs showed the ability to strongly interact and aggregate mucin in our model. Positive NPs affected cell viability and induced apoptosis in all cell lines independently of their ability of produce mucin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Properties of Basil and Lavender Essential Oils Adsorbed on the Surface of Hydroxyapatite
Materials 2018, 11(5), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050652
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
The research conducted in this study presented for the first time results of physico-chemical properties and in vitro antimicrobial activity of hydroxyapatite plant essential oil against Gram-positive bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and S. aureus 0364) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC
[...] Read more.
The research conducted in this study presented for the first time results of physico-chemical properties and in vitro antimicrobial activity of hydroxyapatite plant essential oil against Gram-positive bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and S. aureus 0364) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922). The samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to determine the morphology and structure of the nanocomposites of hydroxyapatite coated with basil (HAp-B) and lavender (HAp-L) essential oils (EOs). The values of the BET specific surface area (SBET), total pore volume (VP) and pore size (DP) were determined. The results for the physico-chemical properties of HAp-L and HAp-B revealed that lavender EOs were well adsorbed on the surface of hydroxyapatite, whereas basil EOs showed a poor adsorption on the surface of hydroxyapatite. We found that the lavender EOs hydroxyapatite (HAp-L) exhibited a very good inhibitory growth activity. The value of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) related to growth bacteria was 0.039 mg/mL for MRSA, 0.02 mg/mL for S. aureus and 0.039 mg/mL E. coli ATCC 25922. The basil EO hydroxyapatite (HAp-B) showed poor inhibition of bacterial cell growth. The MIC value was 0.625 mg/mL for the HAp-B sample in the presence of the MRSA bacteria, 0.313 mg/mL in the presence of S. aureus and 0.078 mg/mL for E. coli ATCC 25922. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Anticancer Applications of Nanostructured Silica-Based Materials Functionalized with Titanocene Derivatives: Induction of Cell Death Mechanism through TNFR1 Modulation
Materials 2018, 11(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11020224
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of cytotoxic titanocene derivatives have been immobilized onto nanostructured silica-based materials using two different synthetic routes, namely, (i) a simple grafting protocol via protonolysis of the Ti–Cl bond; and (ii) a tethering method by elimination of ethanol using triethoxysilyl moieties of
[...] Read more.
A series of cytotoxic titanocene derivatives have been immobilized onto nanostructured silica-based materials using two different synthetic routes, namely, (i) a simple grafting protocol via protonolysis of the Ti–Cl bond; and (ii) a tethering method by elimination of ethanol using triethoxysilyl moieties of thiolato ligands attached to titanium. The resulting nanostructured systems have been characterized by different techniques such as XRD, XRF, DR-UV, BET, SEM, and TEM, observing the incorporation of the titanocene derivatives onto the nanostructured silica and slight changes in the textural features of the materials after functionalization with the metallodrugs. A complete biological study has been carried out using the synthesized materials exhibiting moderate cytotoxicity in vitro against three human hepatic carcinoma (HepG2, SK-Hep-1, Hep3B) and three human colon carcinomas (DLD-1, HT-29, COLO320) and very low cytotoxicity against normal cell lines. In addition, the cells’ metabolic activity was modified by a 24-h exposure in a dose-dependent manner. Despite not having a significant effect on TNFα or the proinflammatory interleukin 1α secretion, the materials strongly modulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling, even at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. This is achieved mainly by upregulation of the TNFR1 receptor production, something which has not previously been observed for these systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Biopolymer-Based Nanoparticles for Cystic Fibrosis Lung Gene Therapy Studies
Materials 2018, 11(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11010122
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lung gene therapy for cystic fibrosis disease has not been successful due to several challenges such as the absence of an appropriate vector. Therefore, optimal delivery of emerging therapeutics to airway epithelial cells demands suitable non-viral systems. In this work, we describe the
[...] Read more.
Lung gene therapy for cystic fibrosis disease has not been successful due to several challenges such as the absence of an appropriate vector. Therefore, optimal delivery of emerging therapeutics to airway epithelial cells demands suitable non-viral systems. In this work, we describe the formulation and the physicochemical investigation of biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), including PLGA and chitosan (animal and non-animal), as novel methods for the safe and efficient delivery of CFTR-specific locked nucleic acids (LNAs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Nitrogen-Doped Diamond Film for Optical Investigation of Hemoglobin Concentration
Materials 2018, 11(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11010109
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6017 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we present the fabrication and characterization of a diamond film which can be utilized in the construction of optical sensors for the investigation of biological samples. We produced a nitrogen-doped diamond (NDD) film using a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor
[...] Read more.
In this work we present the fabrication and characterization of a diamond film which can be utilized in the construction of optical sensors for the investigation of biological samples. We produced a nitrogen-doped diamond (NDD) film using a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MWPECVD) system. The NDD film was investigated with the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The NDD film was used in the construction of the fiber optic sensor. This sensor is based on the Fabry–Pérot interferometer working in a reflective mode and the NDD film is utilized as a reflective layer of this interferometer. Application of the NDD film allowed us to obtain the sensor of hemoglobin concentration with linear work characteristics with a correlation coefficient (R2) equal to 0.988. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Direct Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube Field Emitters on Metal Substrate for Open-Type X-ray Source in Medical Imaging
Materials 2017, 10(8), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10080878
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 29 July 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report the design, fabrication and characterization of a carbon nanotube enabled open-type X-ray system for medical imaging. We directly grew the carbon nanotubes used as electron emitter for electron gun on a non-polished raw metallic rectangular-rounded substrate with an area of 0.1377
[...] Read more.
We report the design, fabrication and characterization of a carbon nanotube enabled open-type X-ray system for medical imaging. We directly grew the carbon nanotubes used as electron emitter for electron gun on a non-polished raw metallic rectangular-rounded substrate with an area of 0.1377 cm2 through a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The stable field emission properties with triode electrodes after electrical aging treatment showed an anode emission current of 0.63 mA at a gate field of 7.51 V/μm. The 4.5-inch cubic shape open type X-ray system was developed consisting of an X-ray aperture, a vacuum part, an anode high voltage part, and a field emission electron gun including three electrodes with focusing, gate and cathode electrodes. Using this system, we obtained high-resolution X-ray images accelerated at 42–70 kV voltage by digital switching control between emitter and ground electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Drug Delivery Nanosystems for the Localized Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme
Materials 2018, 11(5), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050779
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3934 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most prevalent and malignant forms of central nervous system tumors. The treatment of glioblastoma remains a great challenge due to its location in the intracranial space and the presence of the blood–brain tumor barrier. There is an
[...] Read more.
Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most prevalent and malignant forms of central nervous system tumors. The treatment of glioblastoma remains a great challenge due to its location in the intracranial space and the presence of the blood–brain tumor barrier. There is an urgent need to develop novel therapy approaches for this tumor, to improve the clinical outcomes, and to reduce the rate of recurrence and adverse effects associated with present options. The formulation of therapeutic agents in nanostructures is one of the most promising approaches to treat glioblastoma due to the increased availability at the target site, and the possibility to co-deliver a range of drugs and diagnostic agents. Moreover, the local administration of nanostructures presents significant additional advantages, since it overcomes blood–brain barrier penetration issues to reach higher concentrations of therapeutic agents in the tumor area with minimal side effects. In this paper, we aim to review the attempts to develop nanostructures as local drug delivery systems able to deliver multiple agents for both therapeutic and diagnostic functions for the management of glioblastoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessReview Generation of Well-Defined Micro/Nanoparticles via Advanced Manufacturing Techniques for Therapeutic Delivery
Materials 2018, 11(4), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040623
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 8 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
PDF Full-text (25508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micro/nanoparticles have great potentials in biomedical applications, especially for drug delivery. Existing studies identified that major micro/nanoparticle features including size, shape, surface property and component materials play vital roles in their in vitro and in vivo applications. However, a demanding challenge is that
[...] Read more.
Micro/nanoparticles have great potentials in biomedical applications, especially for drug delivery. Existing studies identified that major micro/nanoparticle features including size, shape, surface property and component materials play vital roles in their in vitro and in vivo applications. However, a demanding challenge is that most conventional particle synthesis techniques such as emulsion can only generate micro/nanoparticles with a very limited number of shapes (i.e., spherical or rod shapes) and have very loose control in terms of particle sizes. We reviewed the advanced manufacturing techniques for producing micro/nanoparticles with precisely defined characteristics, emphasizing the use of these well-controlled micro/nanoparticles for drug delivery applications. Additionally, to illustrate the vital roles of particle features in therapeutic delivery, we also discussed how the above-mentioned micro/nanoparticle features impact in vitro and in vivo applications. Through this review, we highlighted the unique opportunities in generating controllable particles via advanced manufacturing techniques and the great potential of using these micro/nanoparticles for therapeutic delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessReview Electromagnetic Nanoparticles for Sensing and Medical Diagnostic Applications
Materials 2018, 11(4), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040603
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
A modeling and design approach is proposed for nanoparticle-based electromagnetic devices. First, the structure properties were analytically studied using Maxwell’s equations. The method provides us a robust link between nanoparticles electromagnetic response (amplitude and phase) and their geometrical characteristics (shape, geometry, and dimensions).
[...] Read more.
A modeling and design approach is proposed for nanoparticle-based electromagnetic devices. First, the structure properties were analytically studied using Maxwell’s equations. The method provides us a robust link between nanoparticles electromagnetic response (amplitude and phase) and their geometrical characteristics (shape, geometry, and dimensions). Secondly, new designs based on “metamaterial” concept are proposed, demonstrating great performances in terms of wide-angle range functionality and multi/wide behavior, compared to conventional devices working at the same frequencies. The approach offers potential applications to build-up new advanced platforms for sensing and medical diagnostics. Therefore, in the final part of the article, some practical examples are reported such as cancer detection, water content measurements, chemical analysis, glucose concentration measurements and blood diseases monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Emerging Nanomedicine Therapies to Counter the Rise of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Materials 2018, 11(2), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11020321
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
PDF Full-text (3013 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a recent report, the World Health Organisation (WHO) classified antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest threats to global health, food security, and development. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains at the core of this threat, with persistent and resilient strains detectable in
[...] Read more.
In a recent report, the World Health Organisation (WHO) classified antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest threats to global health, food security, and development. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains at the core of this threat, with persistent and resilient strains detectable in up to 90% of S. aureus infections. Unfortunately, there is a lack of novel antibiotics reaching the clinic to address the significant morbidity and mortality that MRSA is responsible for. Recently, nanomedicine strategies have emerged as a promising therapy to combat the rise of MRSA. However, these approaches have been wide-ranging in design, with few attempts to compare studies across scientific and clinical disciplines. This review seeks to reconcile this discrepancy in the literature, with specific focus on the mechanisms of MRSA infection and how they can be exploited by bioactive molecules that are delivered by nanomedicines, in addition to utilisation of the nanomaterials themselves as antibacterial agents. Finally, we discuss targeting MRSA biofilms using nano-patterning technologies and comment on future opportunities and challenges for MRSA treatment using nanomedicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Nanogels for Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications and Their Fabrication Using 3D Printing Technologies
Materials 2018, 11(2), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11020302
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
PDF Full-text (2315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanogels are hydrogels formed by connecting nanoscopic micelles dispersed in an aqueous medium, which give an opportunity for incorporating hydrophilic payloads to the exterior of the micellar networks and hydrophobic payloads in the core of the micelles. Biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of nanogels
[...] Read more.
Nanogels are hydrogels formed by connecting nanoscopic micelles dispersed in an aqueous medium, which give an opportunity for incorporating hydrophilic payloads to the exterior of the micellar networks and hydrophobic payloads in the core of the micelles. Biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of nanogels have been explored for tissue regeneration, wound healing, surgical device, implantation, and peroral, rectal, vaginal, ocular, and transdermal drug delivery. Although it is still in the early stages of development, due to the increasing demands of precise nanogel production to be utilized for personalized medicine, biomedical applications, and specialized drug delivery, 3D printing has been explored in the past few years and is believed to be one of the most precise, efficient, inexpensive, customizable, and convenient manufacturing techniques for nanogel production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessReview Nanoparticle-Based Strategies to Treat Neuro-Inflammation
Materials 2018, 11(2), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11020270
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
PDF Full-text (520 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neuro-inflammation is a pivotal physio-pathological feature of brain disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. As such, it is a relevant therapeutic target against which drugs have to be proposed. Targeting neuro-inflammation implies crossing the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) to reach the Central Nervous System (CNS). Engineered
[...] Read more.
Neuro-inflammation is a pivotal physio-pathological feature of brain disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. As such, it is a relevant therapeutic target against which drugs have to be proposed. Targeting neuro-inflammation implies crossing the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) to reach the Central Nervous System (CNS). Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are promising candidates to carry and deliver drugs to the CNS by crossing the BBB. There are several strategies to design ENPs intended for crossing through the BBB. Herein, we first put nanotechnologies back in their historical context and introduce neuro-inflammation and its consequences in terms of public health. In a second part, we explain how ENPs can get access to the brain and review this area by highlighting recent papers in the field. Finally, after pointing out potential guidelines for preclinical studies involving ENPs, we conclude by opening the debate on the questions of nanosafety and toxicity of these ENPs and in particular on ecotoxicity related to regulatory issues and public concerns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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