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Special Issue "Advanced Materials for Modern Holographic Applications"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2012)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Martin Fally

Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Wien, Austria
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +431427772710
Fax: +43 1 4277 511 81
Interests: neutron diffraction by light-induced gratings; neutron interferometry; photorefraction in centrosymmetric crystals; holographic scattering; anisotropic recording
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mirco K. Imlau

Fachbereich Physik, Universität Osnabrück, Barbarastrasse 7, D-49076 Osnabrück, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: light-matter-interactions; dynamical holography; (ultra-)fast spectroscopy; nonlinear optics & photonics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Driven by the impact of the holographic principle and the field of visionary holographic applications (real-time 3D-display devices, (ultra-) high density volume data storage, 3D-microscopy at the atomic scale), several research groups have focussed their work on the study and development of appropriate holographic materials in recent years. This trend has been fostered by the progress obtained in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology, because novel approaches for targeted material design on the sub-wavelength scale became possible (bottom-up approach, hybrid nano-materials, etc.).

As a result, we recognize a variety of advanced materials today that are applicable for modern holography. The latter includes recording and subsequent reconstruction using e.g., (ultra-)short laser pulses, electrons, X-rays or neutrons. Such advanced materials typically are far beyond the class of well-established materials, e.g., films whose function is based on chemical post-processing or crystals featuring the photorefractive effect.

It is the aim of this Special Issue to collect information on the most recent developments of advanced materials providing high potential for modern holography. These materials might be diverse and range from semiconductors with DX-centers to molecular crystals with photo-induced linkage isomerism to materials that can be explored using neutron holography with atomic resolution. Included are also functionalized materials with extended holographic properties such as e.g., holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals, optically addressable liquid crystal elastomers or nanoparticle-polymer composites.

We further seek for contributions that address the field of visionary applications enabled by these materials.

This Special Issue is intended to represent the first step of establishing an international platform for researchers who are focusing on advanced materials for modern holographic applications.

Prof. Dr. Martin Fally
Prof. Dr. Mirco K. Imlau
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • advanced holographic recording materials & optical storage media
  • polymer dispersed liquid crystals
  • nanoparticle polymer composites
  • liquid crystals elastomers
  • composite polymeric materials
  • photosensitive glasses
  • photoinduced metastable states
  • photo-isomerization
  • matter wave diffractive optics and holography (X-rays, neutrons, electrons)
  • holographic optical elements

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Holographic Spectroscopy: Wavelength-Dependent Analysis of Photosensitive Materials by Means of Holographic Techniques
Materials 2013, 6(1), 334-358; doi:10.3390/ma6010334
Received: 15 November 2012 / Revised: 8 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 23 January 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Holographic spectroscopy is highlighted as a powerful tool for the analysis of photosensitive materials with pronounced alterations of the complex permittivity over a broad range in the visible spectrum, due to the advances made both in the fields of advanced holographic media and
[...] Read more.
Holographic spectroscopy is highlighted as a powerful tool for the analysis of photosensitive materials with pronounced alterations of the complex permittivity over a broad range in the visible spectrum, due to the advances made both in the fields of advanced holographic media and highly tunable lasers systems. To analytically discuss consequences for in- and off-Bragg reconstruction, we revised Kogelnik’s coupled wave theory strictly on the basis of complex permittivities. We extended it to comply with modern experimental parameters such as out-of-phase mixed holograms and highly modulated gratings. A spatially modulated, wavelength-dependent permittivity that superimposes a spatially homogeneous wavelength-dependent ground state spectrum is taken into account for signal wave reconstruction with bulky elementary mixed gratings as an example. The dispersion characteristics of the respective diffraction efficiency is modelled for color-center-absorption and absorption of strongly localized carriers. As an example for the theoretical possibilities of our newly derived set of equations, we present a quantitative analysis of the Borrmann effect connected to out-of-phase gratings, providing easier and more intuitive methods for the derivation of their grating parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Modern Holographic Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Quickly Updatable Hologram Images Using Poly(N-vinyl Carbazole) (PVCz) Photorefractive Polymer Composite
Materials 2012, 5(8), 1477-1486; doi:10.3390/ma5081477
Received: 27 June 2012 / Revised: 1 August 2012 / Accepted: 20 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quickly updatable hologram images using photorefractive (PR) polymer composite based on poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVCz) is presented. PVCz is one of the pioneer materials of photoconductive polymers. PR polymer composite consists of 44 wt % of PVCz, 35 wt % of 4-azacycloheptylbenzylidene-malonitrile
[...] Read more.
Quickly updatable hologram images using photorefractive (PR) polymer composite based on poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVCz) is presented. PVCz is one of the pioneer materials of photoconductive polymers. PR polymer composite consists of 44 wt % of PVCz, 35 wt % of 4-azacycloheptylbenzylidene-malonitrile (7-DCST) as a nonlinear optical dye, 20 wt % of carbazolylethylpropionate (CzEPA) as a photoconductive plasticizer and 1 wt % of 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF) as a sensitizer. PR composite gives high diffraction efficiency of 68% at E = 45 V μm−1. Response speed of optical diffraction is the key parameter for real-time 3D holographic display. The key parameter for obtaining quickly updatable holographic images is to control the glass transition temperature lower enough to enhance chromophore orientation. Object image of the reflected coin surface recorded with reference beam at 532 nm (green beam) in the PR polymer composite is simultaneously reconstructed using a red probe beam at 642 nm. Instead of using a coin object, an object image produced by a computer was displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM) and used for the hologram. The reflected object beam from an SLM was interfered with a reference beam on PR polymer composite to record a hologram and simultaneously reconstructed by a red probe beam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Modern Holographic Applications)
Open AccessArticle Replication of Holograms with Corn Syrup by Rubbing
Materials 2012, 5(8), 1462-1476; doi:10.3390/ma5081462
Received: 3 April 2012 / Revised: 19 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
PDF Full-text (271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Corn syrup films are used to replicate holograms in order to fabricate micro-structural patterns without the toxins commonly found in photosensitive salts and dyes. We use amplitude and relief masks with lithographic techniques and rubbing techniques in order to transfer holographic information to
[...] Read more.
Corn syrup films are used to replicate holograms in order to fabricate micro-structural patterns without the toxins commonly found in photosensitive salts and dyes. We use amplitude and relief masks with lithographic techniques and rubbing techniques in order to transfer holographic information to corn syrup material. Holographic diffraction patterns from holographic gratings and computer Fourier holograms fabricated with corn syrup are shown. We measured the diffraction efficiency parameter in order to characterize the film. The versatility of this material for storage information is promising. Holographic gratings achieved a diffraction efficiency of around 8.4% with an amplitude mask and 36% for a relief mask technique. Preliminary results using corn syrup as an emulsion for replicating holograms are also shown in this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Modern Holographic Applications)
Open AccessArticle Volume Holograms in Photopolymers: Comparison between Analytical and Rigorous Theories
Materials 2012, 5(8), 1373-1388; doi:10.3390/ma5081373
Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 1 August 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (590 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is no doubt that the concept of volume holography has led to an incredibly great amount of scientific research and technological applications. One of these applications is the use of volume holograms as optical memories, and in particular, the use of a
[...] Read more.
There is no doubt that the concept of volume holography has led to an incredibly great amount of scientific research and technological applications. One of these applications is the use of volume holograms as optical memories, and in particular, the use of a photosensitive medium like a photopolymeric material to record information in all its volume. In this work we analyze the applicability of Kogelnik’s Coupled Wave theory to the study of volume holograms recorded in photopolymers. Some of the theoretical models in the literature describing the mechanism of hologram formation in photopolymer materials use Kogelnik’s theory to analyze the gratings recorded in photopolymeric materials. If Kogelnik’s theory cannot be applied is necessary to use a more general Coupled Wave theory (CW) or the Rigorous Coupled Wave theory (RCW). The RCW does not incorporate any approximation and thus, since it is rigorous, permits judging the accurateness of the approximations included in Kogelnik’s and CW theories. In this article, a comparison between the predictions of the three theories for phase transmission diffraction gratings is carried out. We have demonstrated the agreement in the prediction of CW and RCW and the validity of Kogelnik’s theory only for gratings with spatial frequencies higher than 500 lines/mm for the usual values of the refractive index modulations obtained in photopolymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Modern Holographic Applications)
Open AccessArticle Biophotopol: A Sustainable Photopolymer for Holographic Data Storage Applications
Materials 2012, 5(5), 772-783; doi:10.3390/ma5050772
Received: 28 March 2012 / Revised: 26 April 2012 / Accepted: 28 April 2012 / Published: 2 May 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photopolymers have proved to be useful for different holographic applications such as holographic data storage or holographic optical elements. However, most photopolymers have certain undesirable features, such as the toxicity of some of their components or their low environmental compatibility. For this reason,
[...] Read more.
Photopolymers have proved to be useful for different holographic applications such as holographic data storage or holographic optical elements. However, most photopolymers have certain undesirable features, such as the toxicity of some of their components or their low environmental compatibility. For this reason, the Holography and Optical Processing Group at the University of Alicante developed a new dry photopolymer with low toxicity and high thickness called biophotopol, which is very adequate for holographic data storage applications. In this paper we describe our recent studies on biophotopol and the main characteristics of this material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Modern Holographic Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Kinetics of Holographic Recording and Spontaneous Erasure Processes in Light-Sensitive Liquid Crystal Elastomers
Materials 2012, 5(5), 741-753; doi:10.3390/ma5050741
Received: 20 February 2012 / Revised: 16 March 2012 / Accepted: 22 March 2012 / Published: 25 April 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The optical mechanism for imprinting one-dimensional grating structures into thin films of a light-sensitive monodomain liquid crystal elastomer is investigated by analyzing the time dependence of optical diffraction properties. The recording kinetics shows an irregular oscillatory behavior, which is most expressed at small
[...] Read more.
The optical mechanism for imprinting one-dimensional grating structures into thin films of a light-sensitive monodomain liquid crystal elastomer is investigated by analyzing the time dependence of optical diffraction properties. The recording kinetics shows an irregular oscillatory behavior, which is most expressed at small grating spacings and at temperatures close to the nematic-isotropic phase transition. The oscillations are attributed to the opto-mechanical response of the film, i.e., to contraction of the film during the recording process. At temperatures far below the nematic-isotropic phase transition, the spontaneous erasure kinetics exhibits exponential relaxation with relaxation time following the Arrhenius activation law. However, at temperatures close to the nematic-isotropic phase transition, the erasure process shows an interesting nonmonotonic behavior that we attribute to the non-linear relation between the concentration of the photo-transformed chemical groups and the nematic order parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Modern Holographic Applications)
Open AccessArticle Optical Properties of Mg, Fe, Co-Doped Near-Stoichiometric LiTaO3 Single Crystals
Materials 2012, 5(2), 227-238; doi:10.3390/ma5020227
Received: 17 November 2011 / Revised: 17 January 2012 / Accepted: 19 January 2012 / Published: 30 January 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2046 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mg, Fe co-doped near-stoichiometric lithium tantalite (SLT) single crystals were grown by employing the zone-leveling Czochralski (ZLCz) technique. The optical properties, holographic parameters, as well as the composition of the grown crystals were measured. It was found that the Li/Ta ratio decreased with
[...] Read more.
Mg, Fe co-doped near-stoichiometric lithium tantalite (SLT) single crystals were grown by employing the zone-leveling Czochralski (ZLCz) technique. The optical properties, holographic parameters, as well as the composition of the grown crystals were measured. It was found that the Li/Ta ratio decreased with the doping of Mg and Fe ions. A red shift was observed in absorption spectrum for the Mg, Fe co-doped crystals compared to the undoped and Mg-doped ones. The effect of the iron ions (Fe2+ and Fe3+) was further discussed based on the specified absorption bands. Moreover, the occupation mechanism for the defects was discussed by using the IR absorption spectrum, which was attributed to the FeTa3− defects in the highly Fe-doped crystal. In addition, the holographic parameters were also found to be improved with a higher Fe/Ta ratio in the crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Modern Holographic Applications)

Review

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Open AccessReview Holographic Gratings for Slow-Neutron Optics
Materials 2012, 5(12), 2788-2815; doi:10.3390/ma5122788
Received: 22 August 2012 / Revised: 27 September 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent progress in the development of holographic gratings for neutron-optics applications is reviewed. We summarize the properties of gratings recorded in deuterated (poly)methylmethacrylate, holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals and nanoparticle-polymer composites revealed by diffraction experiments with slow neutrons. Existing and anticipated neutron-optical instrumentations based
[...] Read more.
Recent progress in the development of holographic gratings for neutron-optics applications is reviewed. We summarize the properties of gratings recorded in deuterated (poly)methylmethacrylate, holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals and nanoparticle-polymer composites revealed by diffraction experiments with slow neutrons. Existing and anticipated neutron-optical instrumentations based on holographic gratings are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Modern Holographic Applications)
Open AccessReview Recent Advances in the Photorefraction of Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals
Materials 2012, 5(10), 1954-1971; doi:10.3390/ma5101954
Received: 13 August 2012 / Revised: 18 September 2012 / Accepted: 12 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recent advances in the photorefraction of doped lithium niobate crystals are reviewed. Materials have always been the main obstacle for commercial applications of photorefractive holographic storage. Though iron-doped LiNbO3 is the mainstay of holographic data storage efforts, several shortcomings, especially the
[...] Read more.
The recent advances in the photorefraction of doped lithium niobate crystals are reviewed. Materials have always been the main obstacle for commercial applications of photorefractive holographic storage. Though iron-doped LiNbO3 is the mainstay of holographic data storage efforts, several shortcomings, especially the low response speed, impede it from becoming a commercial recording medium. This paper reviews the photorefractive characteristics of different dopants, especially tetravalent ions, doped and co-doped LiNbO3 crystals, including Hf, Zr and Sn monodoped LiNbO3, Hf and Fe, Zr and Fe doubly doped LiNbO3, Zr, Fe and Mn, Zr, Cu and Ce triply doped LiNbO3, Ru doped LiNbO3, and V and Mo monodoped LiNbO3. Among them, Zr, Fe and Mn triply doped LiNbO3 shows excellent nonvolatile holographic storage properties, and V and Mo monodoped LiNbO3 has fast response and multi-wavelength storage characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Modern Holographic Applications)
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Open AccessReview Adaptive Holography in Liquid Crystal Light-Valves
Materials 2012, 5(9), 1546-1559; doi:10.3390/ma5091546
Received: 18 July 2012 / Revised: 13 August 2012 / Accepted: 20 August 2012 / Published: 27 August 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By performing two-wave mixing experiments in a liquid crystal light-valve, optical beam amplification is obtained as a strongly resonant process to which a narrow frequency bandwidth is associated. This property is exploited to realize adaptive holographic interferometric systems able to efficiently detect displacements
[...] Read more.
By performing two-wave mixing experiments in a liquid crystal light-valve, optical beam amplification is obtained as a strongly resonant process to which a narrow frequency bandwidth is associated. This property is exploited to realize adaptive holographic interferometric systems able to efficiently detect displacements as small as fraction of picometers. Pressure radiation induced deformations of a reflecting membrane are measured with the same type of system. Then, when used with complex wavefronts, like speckle fields, the LCLV-based interferometer allows to detect extremely small phase modulations. The examples shown demonstrate the potentialities of the light-valve for dynamic holography applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Modern Holographic Applications)
Open AccessReview Transition Metal Compounds Towards Holography
Materials 2012, 5(6), 1155-1175; doi:10.3390/ma5061155
Received: 26 March 2012 / Revised: 14 June 2012 / Accepted: 14 June 2012 / Published: 20 June 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (5265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have successfully proposed the application of transition metal compounds in holographic recording media. Such compounds feature an ultra-fast light-induced linkage isomerization of the transition-metal–ligand bond with switching times in the sub-picosecond regime and lifetimes from microseconds up to hours at room temperature.
[...] Read more.
We have successfully proposed the application of transition metal compounds in holographic recording media. Such compounds feature an ultra-fast light-induced linkage isomerization of the transition-metal–ligand bond with switching times in the sub-picosecond regime and lifetimes from microseconds up to hours at room temperature. This article highlights the photofunctionality of two of the most promising transition metal compounds and the photophysical mechanisms that are underlying the hologram recording. We present the latest progress with respect to the key measures of holographic media assembled from transition metal compounds, the molecular embedding in a dielectric matrix and their impressive potential for modern holographic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Modern Holographic Applications)
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Open AccessReview Semiconductor CdF2:Ga and CdF2:In Crystals as Media for Real-Time Holography
Materials 2012, 5(5), 784-817; doi:10.3390/ma5050784
Received: 14 March 2012 / Revised: 24 April 2012 / Accepted: 25 April 2012 / Published: 7 May 2012
PDF Full-text (987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Monocrystalline cadmium fluoride is a dielectric solid that can be converted into a semiconductor by doping with donor impurities and subsequent heating in the reduction atmosphere. For two donor elements, Ga and In, the donor (“shallow”) state is a metastable one separated from
[...] Read more.
Monocrystalline cadmium fluoride is a dielectric solid that can be converted into a semiconductor by doping with donor impurities and subsequent heating in the reduction atmosphere. For two donor elements, Ga and In, the donor (“shallow”) state is a metastable one separated from the ground (“deep”) state by a barrier. Photoinduced deep-to-shallow state transition underlies the photochromism of CdF2:Ga and CdF2:In. Real-time phase holograms are recorded in these crystals capable of following up optical processes in a wide frequency range. The features of photochromic transformations in CdF2:Ga and CdF2:In crystals as well as holographic characteristics of these media are discussed. Exemplary applications of CdF2-based holographic elements are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Modern Holographic Applications)
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