Materials 2012, 5(10), 1954-1971; doi:10.3390/ma5101954
Review

Recent Advances in the Photorefraction of Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals

1,2,* email, 2email and 1,2email
Received: 13 August 2012; in revised form: 18 September 2012 / Accepted: 12 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Modern Holographic Applications)
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Abstract: The recent advances in the photorefraction of doped lithium niobate crystals are reviewed. Materials have always been the main obstacle for commercial applications of photorefractive holographic storage. Though iron-doped LiNbO3 is the mainstay of holographic data storage efforts, several shortcomings, especially the low response speed, impede it from becoming a commercial recording medium. This paper reviews the photorefractive characteristics of different dopants, especially tetravalent ions, doped and co-doped LiNbO3 crystals, including Hf, Zr and Sn monodoped LiNbO3, Hf and Fe, Zr and Fe doubly doped LiNbO3, Zr, Fe and Mn, Zr, Cu and Ce triply doped LiNbO3, Ru doped LiNbO3, and V and Mo monodoped LiNbO3. Among them, Zr, Fe and Mn triply doped LiNbO3 shows excellent nonvolatile holographic storage properties, and V and Mo monodoped LiNbO3 has fast response and multi-wavelength storage characteristics.
Keywords: photorefraction; lithium niobate; dopants; optical damage
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kong, Y.; Liu, S.; Xu, J. Recent Advances in the Photorefraction of Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals. Materials 2012, 5, 1954-1971.

AMA Style

Kong Y, Liu S, Xu J. Recent Advances in the Photorefraction of Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals. Materials. 2012; 5(10):1954-1971.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kong, Yongfa; Liu, Shiguo; Xu, Jingjun. 2012. "Recent Advances in the Photorefraction of Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals." Materials 5, no. 10: 1954-1971.


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