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Materials 2017, 10(1), 92; doi:10.3390/ma10010092

First-Row Transition Metal Doping in Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics: A Detailed Crystallographic Study

Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, SIGMA Clermont, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, F-63000 Clermont–Ferrand, France
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Academic Editor: Patrice Laquerriere
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Phosphate in Biomedical Applications)
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Abstract

Doped calcium phosphate bioceramics are promising materials for bone repair surgery because of their chemical resemblance to the mineral constituent of bone. Among these materials, BCP samples composed of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) and β-TCP (Ca3(PO4)2) present a mineral analogy with the nano-multi-substituted hydroxyapatite bio-mineral part of bones. At the same time, doping can be used to tune the biological properties of these ceramics. This paper presents a general overview of the doping mechanisms of BCP samples using cations from the first-row transition metals (from manganese to zinc), with respect to the applied sintering temperature. The results enable the preparation of doped synthetic BCP that can be used to tailor biological properties, in particular by tuning the release amounts upon interaction with biological fluids. Intermediate sintering temperatures stabilize the doping elements in the more soluble β-TCP phase, which favors quick and easy release upon integration in the biological environment, whereas higher sintering temperatures locate the doping elements in the weakly soluble HAp phase, enabling a slow and continuous supply of the bio-inspired properties. An interstitial doping mechanism in the HAp hexagonal channel is observed for the six investigated cations (Mn2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+) with specific characteristics involving a shift away from the center of the hexagonal channel (Fe3+, Co2+), cationic oxidation (Mn3+, Co3+), and also cationic reduction (Cu+). The complete crystallochemical study highlights a complex HAp doping mechanism, mainly realized by an interstitial process combined with calcium substitution for the larger cations of the series leading to potentially calcium deficient HAp. View Full-Text
Keywords: apatite; doping; cationic substitution; bioceramics apatite; doping; cationic substitution; bioceramics
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Renaudin, G.; Gomes, S.; Nedelec, J.-M. First-Row Transition Metal Doping in Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics: A Detailed Crystallographic Study. Materials 2017, 10, 92.

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