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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020069

Exopolysaccharides from Marine and Marine Extremophilic Bacteria: Structures, Properties, Ecological Roles and Applications

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80126 Naples, Italy
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Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides)
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Abstract

The marine environment is the largest aquatic ecosystem on Earth and it harbours microorganisms responsible for more than 50% of total biomass of prokaryotes in the world. All these microorganisms produce extracellular polymers that constitute a substantial part of the dissolved organic carbon, often in the form of exopolysaccharides (EPS). In addition, the production of these polymers is often correlated to the establishment of the biofilm growth mode, during which they are important matrix components. Their functions include adhesion and colonization of surfaces, protection of the bacterial cells and support for biochemical interactions between the bacteria and the surrounding environment. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the status of the research about the structures of exopolysaccharides from marine bacteria, including capsular, medium released and biofilm embedded polysaccharides. Moreover, ecological roles of these polymers, especially for those isolated from extreme ecological niches (deep-sea hydrothermal vents, polar regions, hypersaline ponds, etc.), are reported. Finally, relationships between the structure and the function of the exopolysaccharides are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: exopolysaccharides; chemical characterization; capsular polysaccharide; purification; EPS; extremophile; marine; NMR; GC-MS; structure/activity relationship exopolysaccharides; chemical characterization; capsular polysaccharide; purification; EPS; extremophile; marine; NMR; GC-MS; structure/activity relationship
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Casillo, A.; Lanzetta, R.; Parrilli, M.; Corsaro, M.M. Exopolysaccharides from Marine and Marine Extremophilic Bacteria: Structures, Properties, Ecological Roles and Applications. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 69.

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