Special Issue "Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints"

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A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Amir Kamali

Medical Affairs Scientific Director, Smith & Nephew Orthopaedics Ltd. Aurora House, Harrison Way Leamington Spa, CV31 3HL, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biomaterials; biomechanics and biotribology
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. J. Philippe Kretzer

Director of the Laboratory of Biomechanics and Implant Research, Heidelberg University, Schlierbacher Landstrabe 200a, 69118 Heidelberg, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +49 6221 562 9206
Interests: tribology of joint replacement; biomechanics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Joint replacement is a very successful medical treatment. However, the survivorship of these implants is limited and the loss of materials in the form of particles or ions, due to the relative motion between the orthopaedic implants’ articulating surfaces and the consequent tissue and immune response to these wear products, remain one of the key factors of their failure.

Tribology has been defined as the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion and all related wear products (e.g., particles, ions, etc.).

Over the last few decades, in an attempt to understand and improve joint replacement technology, the tribological performance of several material combinations have been studied experimentally and assessed clinically. In addition, research has focused on the biological effects and long term consequences of wear products.

Improvements have been made in manufacturing processes, precision engineering capabilities, device designs and materials properties in order to minimize wear and friction and maximize component longevity in vivo.

This special issue will investigate the in vivo and in vitro performance of the orthopaedic implants and their advanced bearings. Contributions are solicited from the researchers working in the field of biotribology and bioengineering.

Dr. Amir Kamali
Dr. J. Philippe Kretzer
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Lubricants is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • friction
  • wear
  • joint replacement
  • arthroplasty
  • orthopaedic implant
  • immune response

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Reinforced with Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes: In Vitro Biocompatibility Study Using Macrophage-Like Cells
Lubricants 2015, 3(3), 597-610; doi:10.3390/lubricants3030597
Received: 1 June 2015 / Revised: 27 June 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes are highly versatile materials; new applications using them are continuously being developed. Special attention is being dedicated to the possible use of multiwall carbon nanotubes in biomaterials contacting with bone. This study describes the response of murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells
[...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes are highly versatile materials; new applications using them are continuously being developed. Special attention is being dedicated to the possible use of multiwall carbon nanotubes in biomaterials contacting with bone. This study describes the response of murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells after two and six days of culture in contact with artificially generated particles from both, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene polymer and the composite (multiwall carbon nanotubes and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene). This novel composite has superior wear behavior, having thus the potential to reduce the number of revision knee arthroplasty surgeries required by wear failure of tibial articulating component and diminish particle-induced osteolysis. The results of an in vitro study of viability, and interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production suggest good cytocompatibility, similar to that of conventional ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints)
Open AccessArticle Design of an Advanced Bearing System for Total Knee Arthroplasty
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 475-492; doi:10.3390/lubricants3020475
Received: 26 March 2015 / Revised: 27 May 2015 / Accepted: 29 May 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop an advanced-bearing couple for TKA that optimizes the balance between wear resistance and mechanical properties. The mechanical and structural properties of virgin and highly crosslinked, re-melted UHMWPE were evaluated, and tibial inserts manufactured from these
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to develop an advanced-bearing couple for TKA that optimizes the balance between wear resistance and mechanical properties. The mechanical and structural properties of virgin and highly crosslinked, re-melted UHMWPE were evaluated, and tibial inserts manufactured from these UHMWPE materials were tested against either oxidized zirconium (OxZr) or CoCr femoral components on a knee simulator. This study confirmed that the wear resistance of crosslinked UHMWPE improves with increasing radiation dose but is accompanied by a concomitant reduction in mechanical properties. Compared to CoCr, the ceramic surface of OxZr allows the use of a lower irradiation dose to achieve equivalent reductions in wear rates. As a result, a given wear rate can be achieved without sacrificing the mechanical properties to the same extent that is necessary with a CoCr femoral component. The advantage of ceramic counter bearing surfaces extends to both pristine and microabrasive conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Two Total Hip Bearing Materials for Resistance to Wear Using a Hip Simulator
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 459-474; doi:10.3390/lubricants3020459
Received: 11 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
PDF Full-text (1348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electron beam crosslinked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) 32 mm cups with cobalt alloy femoral heads were compared with gamma-irradiation sterilized 26 mm cups and zirconia ceramic heads in a hip wear simulator. The testing was performed for a total of ten
[...] Read more.
Electron beam crosslinked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) 32 mm cups with cobalt alloy femoral heads were compared with gamma-irradiation sterilized 26 mm cups and zirconia ceramic heads in a hip wear simulator. The testing was performed for a total of ten million cycles with frequent stops for cleaning and measurement of mass losses due to wear. The results showed that the ceramic on UHMWPE bearing design exhibited higher early wear than the metal on highly crosslinked samples. Once a steady state wear rate was reached, the wear rates of the two types of hip bearing systems were similar with the ceramic on UHMPWE samples continuing to show a slightly higher rate of wear than the highly crosslinked samples. The wear rates of each of the tested systems appear to be consistent with the expectations for low rates of wear in improved hip replacement systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints)
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Open AccessArticle Prediction of Wear in Crosslinked Polyethylene Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 381-393; doi:10.3390/lubricants3020381
Received: 4 February 2015 / Revised: 23 April 2015 / Accepted: 24 April 2015 / Published: 7 May 2015
PDF Full-text (384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wear-related complications remain a major issue after unicompartmental arthroplasty. We used a computational model to predict knee wear generated in vitro under diverse conditions. Inverse finite element analysis of 2 different total knee arthroplasty designs was used to determine wear factors of standard
[...] Read more.
Wear-related complications remain a major issue after unicompartmental arthroplasty. We used a computational model to predict knee wear generated in vitro under diverse conditions. Inverse finite element analysis of 2 different total knee arthroplasty designs was used to determine wear factors of standard and highly crosslinked polyethylene by matching predicted wear rates to measured wear rates. The computed wear factor was used to predict wear in unicompartmental components. The articular surface design and kinematic conditions of the unicompartmental and tricompartmental designs were different. Predicted wear rate (1.77 mg/million cycles) was very close to experimental wear rate (1.84 mg/million cycles) after testing in an AMTI knee wear simulator. Finite element analysis can predict experimental wear and may reduce the cost and time of preclinical testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints)
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Wear Testing of a CoCr-UHMWPE Finger Prosthesis with Hydroxyapatite Coated CoCr Stems
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 244-255; doi:10.3390/lubricants3020244
Received: 3 March 2015 / Revised: 27 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A finger prosthesis consisting of a Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) proximal component and an Ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE) medial component (both mounted on hydroxyapatite coated stems) was evaluated to 5,000,000 cycles in an in vitro finger simulator. One “test” prosthesis was cycled through flexion-extension (90°–30°) with a
[...] Read more.
A finger prosthesis consisting of a Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) proximal component and an Ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE) medial component (both mounted on hydroxyapatite coated stems) was evaluated to 5,000,000 cycles in an in vitro finger simulator. One “test” prosthesis was cycled through flexion-extension (90°–30°) with a dynamic load of 10 N, whilst immersed in a lubricant of dilute bovine serum. Additionally, a static load of 100 N was applied for 45 s every 3000 cycles to simulate a static gripping force. A second “control” prosthesis was immersed in the same lubricant to account for absorption. Gravimetric and Sa (3D roughness) measurements were taken at 1,000,000 cycle intervals. Micrographs and Sa values revealed negligible change to the CoCr surfaces after 5,000,000 cycles. The UHMWPE also exhibited no distinctive Sa trend, however the micrographs indicate that polishing occurred. Both the CoCr and UHMWPE test components progressively decreased in weight. The CoCr control component did not change in weight, whilst the UHMWPE component gained weight through absorption. To account for the disparity between surface and gravimetric results, the hydroxyapatite coatings were examined. Micrographs of the test stems revealed that the hydroxyapatite coating was partially removed, whilst the micrographs of the control stems exhibited a uniform coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints)
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Open AccessArticle Wear Tests of a Potential Biolubricant for Orthopedic Biopolymers
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 80-90; doi:10.3390/lubricants3020080
Received: 16 January 2015 / Revised: 4 March 2015 / Accepted: 5 March 2015 / Published: 25 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most wear testing of orthopedic implant materials is undertaken with dilute bovine serum used as the lubricant. However, dilute bovine serum is different to the synovial fluid in which natural and artificial joints must operate. As part of a search for a lubricant
[...] Read more.
Most wear testing of orthopedic implant materials is undertaken with dilute bovine serum used as the lubricant. However, dilute bovine serum is different to the synovial fluid in which natural and artificial joints must operate. As part of a search for a lubricant which more closely resembles synovial fluid, a lubricant based on a mixture of sodium alginate and gellan gum, and which aimed to match the rheology of synovial fluid, was produced. It was employed in a wear test of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene pins rubbing against a metallic counterface. The test rig applied multidirectional motion to the test pins and had previously been shown to reproduce clinically relevant wear factors for ultra high molecular weight polyethylene. After 2.4 million cycles (125 km) of sliding in the presence of the new lubricant, a mean wear factor of 0.099 × 10−6 mm3/Nm was measured for the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene pins. This was over an order of magnitude less than when bovine serum was used as a lubricant. In addition, there was evidence of a transfer film on the test plates. Such transfer films are not seen clinically. The search for a lubricant more closely matching synovial fluid continues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints)
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Open AccessArticle Wear Performance of Sequentially Cross-Linked Polyethylene Inserts against Ion-Treated CoCr, TiNbN-Coated CoCr and Al2O3 Ceramic Femoral Heads for Total Hip Replacement
Lubricants 2015, 3(1), 14-26; doi:10.3390/lubricants3010014
Received: 14 January 2015 / Accepted: 29 January 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (611 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biotribology of current surface modifications on femoral heads in terms of wettability, polyethylene wear and ion-release behavior. Three 36 mm diameter ion-treated CoCr heads and three 36 mm diameter TiNbN-coated CoCr heads were
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biotribology of current surface modifications on femoral heads in terms of wettability, polyethylene wear and ion-release behavior. Three 36 mm diameter ion-treated CoCr heads and three 36 mm diameter TiNbN-coated CoCr heads were articulated against sequentially cross-linked polyethylene inserts (X3) in a hip joint simulator, according to ISO 14242. Within the scope of the study, the cobalt ion release in the lubricant, as well as contact angles at the bearing surfaces, were investigated and compared to 36 mm alumina ceramic femoral heads over a period of 5 million cycles. The mean volumetric wear rates were 2.15 ± 0.18 mm3·million cycles−1 in articulation against the ion-treated CoCr head, 2.66 ± 0.40 mm3·million cycles−1 for the coupling with the TiNbN-coated heads and 2.17 ± 0.40 mm3·million cycles−1 for the ceramic heads. The TiNbN-coated femoral heads showed a better wettability and a lower ion level in comparison to the ion-treated CoCr heads. Consequently, the low volumes of wear debris, which is comparable to ceramics, and the low concentration of metal ions in the lubrication justifies the use of coated femoral heads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints)
Open AccessArticle Development and Validation of a Wear Model to Predict Polyethylene Wear in a Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Finite Element Analysis
Lubricants 2014, 2(4), 193-205; doi:10.3390/lubricants2040193
Received: 21 August 2014 / Revised: 17 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) components is one of the main reasons of the failure of implants and the consequent necessity of a revision procedure. Experimental wear tests are commonly used to quantify polyethylene wear in an
[...] Read more.
Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) components is one of the main reasons of the failure of implants and the consequent necessity of a revision procedure. Experimental wear tests are commonly used to quantify polyethylene wear in an implant, but these procedures are quite expensive and time consuming. On the other hand, numerical models could be used to predict the results of a wear test in less time with less cost. This requires, however, that such a model is not only available, but also validated. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop and validate a finite element methodology to be used for predicting polyethylene wear in TKAs. Initially, the wear model was calibrated using the results of an experimental roll-on-plane wear test. Afterwards, the developed wear model was applied to predict patello-femoral wear. Finally, the numerical model was validated by comparing the numerically-predicted wear, with experimental results achieving good agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview In Vitro Analyses of the Toxicity, Immunological, and Gene Expression Effects of Cobalt-Chromium Alloy Wear Debris and Co Ions Derived from Metal-on-Metal Hip Implants
Lubricants 2015, 3(3), 539-568; doi:10.3390/lubricants3030539
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
PDF Full-text (346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Joint replacement has proven to be an extremely successful and cost-effective means of relieving arthritic pain and improving quality of life for recipients. Wear debris-induced osteolysis is, however, a major limitation and causes orthopaedic implant aseptic loosening, and various cell types including macrophages,
[...] Read more.
Joint replacement has proven to be an extremely successful and cost-effective means of relieving arthritic pain and improving quality of life for recipients. Wear debris-induced osteolysis is, however, a major limitation and causes orthopaedic implant aseptic loosening, and various cell types including macrophages, monocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts, are involved. During the last few years, there has been increasing concern about metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements regarding adverse reactions to metal debris associated with the MoM articulation. Even though MoM-bearing technology was initially aimed to extend the durability of hip replacements and to reduce the requirement for revision, they have been reported to release at least three times more cobalt and chromium ions than metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) hip replacements. As a result, the toxicity of metal particles and ions produced by bearing surfaces, both locally in the periprosthetic space and systemically, became a concern. Several investigations have been carried out to understand the mechanisms responsible for the adverse response to metal wear debris. This   review aims at summarising in vitro analyses of the toxicity, immunological, and gene expression effects of cobalt ions and wear debris derived from MoM hip implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints)
Open AccessReview The Synovial Lining and Synovial Fluid Properties after Joint Arthroplasty
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 394-412; doi:10.3390/lubricants3020394
Received: 18 February 2015 / Revised: 4 May 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The lubrication of the cartilaginous structures in human joints is provided by a fluid from a specialized layer of cells at the surface of a delicate tissue called the synovial lining. Little is known about the characteristics of the fluids produced after a
[...] Read more.
The lubrication of the cartilaginous structures in human joints is provided by a fluid from a specialized layer of cells at the surface of a delicate tissue called the synovial lining. Little is known about the characteristics of the fluids produced after a joint arthroplasty procedure. A literature review was carried out to identify papers that characterized the synovial lining and the synovial fluids formed after total hip or knee arthroplasty. Five papers about synovial lining histology and six papers about the lubricating properties of the fluids were identified. The cells making up the re-formed synovial lining, as well as the lining of interface membranes, were similar to the typical Type A and B synoviocytes of normal joints. The synovial fluids around joint replacement devices were typically lower in viscosity than pre-arthroplasty fluids but the protein concentration and phospholipid concentrations tended to be comparable, suggesting that the lining tissue function was preserved after arthroplasty. The widespread, long-term success of joint arthroplasty suggests that the lubricant formed from implanted joint synovium is adequate for good clinical performance in the majority of joints. The role the fluid plays in component wear or failure is a topic for future study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints)
Open AccessReview Wear Performance of UHMWPE and Reinforced UHMWPE Composites in Arthroplasty Applications: A Review
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 413-436; doi:10.3390/lubricants3020413
Received: 27 February 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the gold standard material for artificial joints, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) generates wear debris when the material is used in arthroplasty applications. Due to the adverse reactions of UHMWPE wear debris with surrounding tissues, the life time of UHMWPE joints is often limited
[...] Read more.
As the gold standard material for artificial joints, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) generates wear debris when the material is used in arthroplasty applications. Due to the adverse reactions of UHMWPE wear debris with surrounding tissues, the life time of UHMWPE joints is often limited to 15–20 years. To improve the wear resistance and performance of the material, various attempts have been made in the past decades. This paper reviews existing improvements made to enhance its mechanical properties and wear resistance. They include using gamma irradiation to promote the cross-linked structure and to improve the wear resistance, blending vitamin E to protect the UHMWPE, filler incorporation to improve the mechanical and wear performance, and surface texturing to improve the lubrication condition and to reduce wear. Limitations of existing work and future studies are also identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints)
Open AccessReview Materials and Their Failure Mechanisms in Total Disc Replacement
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 346-364; doi:10.3390/lubricants3020346
Received: 13 February 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 28 April 2015
PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adults suffering from lower back pain often find the cause of pain is degenerative disc disease. While non-surgical treatment is preferred, spinal fusion and total disc replacement remain surgical options for the patient. Total disc replacement is an emerging and improving treatment for
[...] Read more.
Adults suffering from lower back pain often find the cause of pain is degenerative disc disease. While non-surgical treatment is preferred, spinal fusion and total disc replacement remain surgical options for the patient. Total disc replacement is an emerging and improving treatment for degenerative discs. This paper provides a review of lumbar disc replacement for treatment of lower back pain. The mechanics and configuration of the natural disc are first discussed, followed by an introduction of treatment methods that attempt to mimic these mechanics. Total disc replacement types, materials, and failure mechanisms are discussed. Failure mechanisms primarily involve biochemical reactions to implant wear, as well as mechanical incompatibility of the device with natural spine motion. Failure mechanisms include: osteolysis, plastic deformation of polymer components, pitting, fretting, and adjacent level facet and disc degeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints)
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