Special Issue "Fungal Endophytes in Plants"

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Gary A. Strobel

Department of Plant Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: all aspects of endophytic fungi especially their secondary products

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will be dedicated to fungi that are found as endophytes in the world’s plants. Among many other things, it will cover newly-discovered fungi that are endophytic. The role of the endophyte in the plant microbiome is of emerging interest, and aspects of it will be included. Secondary products of endophytes are receiving renewed attention as some have been found that are potential fuels, antibiotics, antioxidants, and anticancer agents, as well as immunosuppressive compounds. Aspects concerning the physiological/biochemical/role of the endophyte, as it relates to its host are also of interest. It goes without saying that this volume will also include aspects of the genetics and epigenetics of endophytes, especially as they relate to the host genome or the production of valuable and important products. Finally, any new developments occurring in this field will also be included.

Dr. Gary A. Strobel
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Fungi is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Endophytic fungus
  • Endophytes
  • Endophyte-Host Interactions
  • Secondary products and their uses
  • Endophytes as the plant microbiome
  • Epigenetics and endophytes

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Observations on the Early Establishment of Foliar Endophytic Fungi in Leaf Discs and Living Leaves of a Model Woody Angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa (Salicaceae)
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020058
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
Fungal endophytes are diverse and widespread symbionts that occur in the living tissues of all lineages of plants without causing evidence of disease. Culture-based and culture-free studies indicate that they often are abundant in the leaves of woody angiosperms, but only a few
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Fungal endophytes are diverse and widespread symbionts that occur in the living tissues of all lineages of plants without causing evidence of disease. Culture-based and culture-free studies indicate that they often are abundant in the leaves of woody angiosperms, but only a few studies have visualized endophytic fungi in leaf tissues, and the process through which most endophytes colonize leaves has not been studied thoroughly. We inoculated leaf discs and the living leaves of a model woody angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa, which has endophytes that represent three distantly-related genera (Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Trichoderma). We used scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy to evaluate the timeline and processes by which they colonize leaf tissue. Under laboratory conditions with high humidity, conidia germinated on leaf discs to yield hyphae that grew epiphytically and incidentally entered stomata, but did not grow in a directed fashion toward stomatal openings. No cuticular penetration was observed. The endophytes readily colonized the interiors of leaf discs that were detached from living leaves, and could be visualized within discs with light microscopy. Although they were difficult to visualize within the interior of living leaves following in vivo inoculations, standard methods for isolating foliar endophytes confirmed their presence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle Fungi as Endophytes in Artemisia thuscula: Juxtaposed Elements of Diversity and Phylogeny
J. Fungi 2018, 4(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4010017
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 27 January 2018
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Abstract
Artemisia is a plant genus highly studied for its medicinal applications. The studies on the associated fungal endophytes are scarce. Ten plants specimens of Artemisia thuscula from Tenerife and La Palma were sampled to isolate the endophytic fungi. Identification of the endophytic fungi
[...] Read more.
Artemisia is a plant genus highly studied for its medicinal applications. The studies on the associated fungal endophytes are scarce. Ten plants specimens of Artemisia thuscula from Tenerife and La Palma were sampled to isolate the endophytic fungi. Identification of the endophytic fungi was based on morphology, Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) and Large Subunit (LSU) regions sequencing and indicates 37 fungal species affiliated to 25 fungal genera. Colonization rate varied among plants (CR = 25% to 92.11%). The most dominant colonizers found were Alternaria alternata (CF = 18.71%), Neofusicoccum sp. (CF = 8.39%) and Preussia sp. (CF = 3.23). Tendency for host specificity of most endophytic fungal species was observed. Sorensen–Dice index revealed that of 45 cases in the matrix, 27 of them were of zero similarity. Further, only one case was found to have 57% similarity (TF2 and TF7) and one case with 50% similarity (TF1 and TF4). The rest of the cases had values ranging between 11% and 40% similarity. Diversity indices like Brillouin, Margalef species richness, Simpson index of diversity and Fisher’s alpha, revealed plants from La Palma with higher values than plants from Tenerife. Three nutrient media (i.e., potato dextrose agar―PDA, lignocellulose agar―LCA, and tomato juice agar―V8) were used in a case study and revealed no differences in terms of colonization rate when data was averaged. Colonization frequency showed several species with preference for nutrient medium (63% of the species were isolated from only one nutrient medium). For the phylogenetic reconstruction using the Bayesian method, 54 endophytic fungal ITS sequences and associated GenBank sequences were analyzed. Ten orders (Diaporthales, Dothideales, Botryosphaeriales, Hypocreales, Trichosphaeriales, Amphisphaeriales, Xylariales, Capnodiales, Pleosporales and Eurotiales) were recognized. Several arrangements of genera draw the attention, like Aureobasidium (Dothideales) and Aplosporella (Botryosphaeriales) which are clustered with a recent ancestor (BS = 0.97). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Endophytic Fungi in Species of Artemisia
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020053
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
The genus Artemisia, a collection of ~400 hardy herbaceous plant and shrub species, is an important resource contributing to chemistry, medicine, agriculture, industry, and ecology. Its communities of endophytic fungi have only recently begun to be explored. Summarized from studies conducted on
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The genus Artemisia, a collection of ~400 hardy herbaceous plant and shrub species, is an important resource contributing to chemistry, medicine, agriculture, industry, and ecology. Its communities of endophytic fungi have only recently begun to be explored. Summarized from studies conducted on the fungal endophytes in Artemisia species, both fungal phylogenetic diversity and the associated bioactivity was examined. Isolations from 14 species of Artemisia have led to 51 genera of fungal endophytes, 28 families, and 18 orders. Endophytes belonged mainly to Ascomycota, except for two taxa of Cantharellales and Sporidiobolales, one taxon of Mucoromycota, and one species of Oomycota. The mostly common families were Pleosporaceae, Trichocomaceae, Leptosphaeriaceae, and Botryosphaeriaceae (relative abundance = 14.89, 8.51, 7.14 and 6.38, respectively). In the search for bioactive metabolites, 27 novel compounds were characterized and 22 metabolites were isolated between 2006 and 2017. The first study on endophytic fungi isolated from species of Artemisia was published but 18 years ago. This summary of recently acquired data illustrates the considerable diversity of biological purposes addressed by fungal endophytes of Artemisia spp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants)
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Open AccessReview Endophytic Mycoflora and Their Bioactive Compounds from Azadirachta Indica: A Comprehensive Review
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020042
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
Plants are all inhabited by endophytic fungi in the interior of their tissues. The neem tree Azadirachta is an Indian lilac used for various therapeutic purposes in different forms of preparations. This plant hosts different types of endophytic fungi. In some cases, different
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Plants are all inhabited by endophytic fungi in the interior of their tissues. The neem tree Azadirachta is an Indian lilac used for various therapeutic purposes in different forms of preparations. This plant hosts different types of endophytic fungi. In some cases, different tissues of a given plant are inhabited by different endophytic fungi which are discussed in this paper. Recently, there have been new reports on endophytic fungi and their bioactive compounds from Azadirachta indica. The biological function of bioactive compounds was discussed in view of their future industrial prospects. There are a number of different research investigations that examine the endophytes isolated and screened for their potential bioactive secondary metabolites from neem, but there is no comprehensive review on neem endophytes and their secondary metabolites to bring all trends from different researchers together. Therefore, in this review, we have discussed the endophytic fungi from the different tissues of neem, in view of the latest understandings of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and pathogenicity target compounds. Importantly, tracing the previous findings would pave the way to forecast the missing link for future work by researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants)
Open AccessReview From Concept to Commerce: Developing a Successful Fungal Endophyte Inoculant for Agricultural Crops
J. Fungi 2018, 4(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4010024
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
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Abstract
The development of endophyte inoculants for agricultural crops has been bedevilled by the twin problems of a lack of reliability and consistency, with a consequent lack of belief among end users in the efficacy of such treatments. We have developed a successful research
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The development of endophyte inoculants for agricultural crops has been bedevilled by the twin problems of a lack of reliability and consistency, with a consequent lack of belief among end users in the efficacy of such treatments. We have developed a successful research pipeline for the production of a reliable, consistent and environmentally targeted fungal endophyte seed-delivered inoculant for barley cultivars. Our approach was developed de novo from an initial concept to source candidate endophyte inoculants from a wild relative of barley, Hordeum murinum (wall barley). A careful screening and selection procedure and extensive controlled environment testing of fungal endophyte strains, followed by multi-year field trials has resulted in the validation of an endophyte consortium suitable for barley crops grown on relatively dry sites. Our approach can be adapted for any crop or environment, provided that the set of first principles we have developed is followed. Here, we report how we developed the successful pipeline for the production of an economically viable fungal endophyte inoculant for barley cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants)
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Other

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Open AccessOpinion The Emergence of Endophytic Microbes and Their Biological Promise
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020057
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
As is true with animal species, plants also have an associated microflora including endophytes as well as microbes associated with the phyllosphere and rhizosphere (plant surfaces) and this is considered the plant microbiome. However, those organisms within virtually all tissues and organs of
[...] Read more.
As is true with animal species, plants also have an associated microflora including endophytes as well as microbes associated with the phyllosphere and rhizosphere (plant surfaces) and this is considered the plant microbiome. However, those organisms within virtually all tissues and organs of the plant are known as endophytes. Most often fungi are the most frequently recovered endophytes from plant tissues, but bacterial forms generally occur in greater numbers, but not in species varieties. The exact biological/biochemical role of the endophyte in the plant and how it interacts with the plant and other endophytes and plant associated organisms has not been intensely and carefully examined. However, this has not stopped investigators in exploring the direct utility of endophytes in boosting plant production, and discovering that endophytes can directly influence the plant to resist temperature extremes, drought, as well as the presence of disease causing organisms. Also, because of the relationships that endophytes seem to have with their host plants, they make a myriad of biologically active compounds some of which are classified as antibiotics, antioxidants, anticancer agents, volatile antimicrobial agents, immunosuppressive compounds, plant growth promoting agents, and insecticides. These endophytic compounds represent a wide range of organic molecules including terpenoids, peptides, carbohydrates, aromatics, hydrocarbons and others and it seems that these compounds may have a role in the host microbe relationship. Most recently and quite surprisingly, some endophytes have been discovered that make hydrocarbons of the types found in diesel and gasoline fuels. In addition, recently discovered are epigenetic factors relating to the biology and biochemistry of endophytes. Interestingly, only about 1–2% of the entire spectrum of 300,000 known plants have been studied for their endophyte composition. Additionally, only a few plants have ever been completely studied including all tissues for the microbes within them. Likewise, the vast majority of plants, including those in oceans and lower plant forms, have never been examined for their endophytes. Furthermore, endophytes representing the “microbiome” of world’s major food plants as they exist in their native “centers of origin” are largely unknown. This non-classical review is intended to provide background information on aspects of developments in endophyte biology and more importantly the identification of new questions in this field that need to be addressed. The review is primarily based on the author’s long held experience in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants)
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