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J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020065

Antifungal Activities of Volatile Secondary Metabolites of Four Diaporthe Strains Isolated from Catharanthus roseus

1
Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100091, China
2
Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510520, China
3
Department of Plant Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes in Plants)
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Abstract

Four endophytic fungi were isolated from the medicinal plant, Catharanthus roseus, and were identified as Diaporthe spp. with partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), beta-tubulin (TUB), histone H3 (HIS), calmodulin (CAL) genes, and rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (TEF1-TUB-HIS--CAL-ITS) multigene phylogeny suggested for species delimitation in the Diaporthe genus. Each fungus produces a unique mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with an abundant mixture of terpenoids analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber-GC/MS. These tentatively-detected terpenes included α-muurolene, β-phellandrene, γ-terpinene, and α-thujene, as well as other minor terpenoids, including caryophyllene, patchoulene, cedrene, 2-carene, and thujone. The volatile metabolites of each isolate showed antifungal properties against a wide range of plant pathogenic test fungi and oomycetes, including Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium graminearum, and Phytophthora cinnamomi. The growth inhibition of the pathogens varied between 10% and 60% within 72 h of exposure. To our knowledge, the endophytic Diaporthe-like strains are first reported from Catharanthus roseus. VOCs produced by each strain of the endophytic Diaporthe fungi were unique components with dominant monoterpenes comparing to known Diaporthe fungal VOCs. A discussion is presented on the inhibitive bioactivities of secondary metabolites among endophytic Diaporthe fungi and this medicinal plant. View Full-Text
Keywords: endophytic fungi; Diaporthe spp.; Catharanthus roseus; volatile organic compounds (VOCs); antifungal bioactivity; inhibition; terpene; pathogens endophytic fungi; Diaporthe spp.; Catharanthus roseus; volatile organic compounds (VOCs); antifungal bioactivity; inhibition; terpene; pathogens
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Yan, D.-H.; Song, X.; Li, H.; Luo, T.; Dou, G.; Strobel, G. Antifungal Activities of Volatile Secondary Metabolites of Four Diaporthe Strains Isolated from Catharanthus roseus. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 65.

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