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Special Issue "Dietary Fibre: Biochemistry and Nutritional Science"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Charles Brennan (Website)

Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch, New Zealand
Interests: polysaccharide utilisation, glycemic response; dietary fibre; food structure and function

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increased consumption of high-fat, high-calorie foods has been linked to an unprecedented growth in the risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancers. Concern with regards to over-consumption of carbohydrates and sugars has been voiced extensively. In an attempt to tackle the situation, there have been recommendations to decrease of intake of sugars, fat and alcohol, and increase the consumption of fruits, vegetables and cereal products, with an aim to increase the total dietary fibre (TDF) intake to minimum intake 25 g /day.

An examination of recent publications illustrates that extensive research has demonstrated the potential nutritional benefits of a moderate-high fibre dietary intakes With this in mind, there appears to be a consensus that fibre forms a crucial part to the maintenance of normal nutrition as part of a balanced nutritional diet.

Thus dietary fibres have been illustrated to be effective in reducing postprandial glycaemic, insulin, and cholesterol responses in humans. Different dietary fibres appear to have different metabolic and physiological effects depending upon their chemical and physical properties. An understanding of these characteristics is useful in predicting the physiological response to a source of fibre (Brennan 2005, Molecular Nutrition and Food Research49, 560-570.).

Submission of papers are now sought for a special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences "Dietary Fibre: Biochemistry and Nutritional Science" exploring current research determining the link between dietary fibre source and functionality.

Prof. Dr. Charles Brennan
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • dietary fibre
  • functional foods
  • glyceamic response
  • obesity
  • cancer (or carbohydrates)

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Chitosan Interaction with Iron from Yoghurt Using an In Vitro Digestive Model: Comparative Study with Plant Dietary Fibers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4647-4660; doi:10.3390/ijms12074647
Received: 5 May 2011 / Revised: 4 June 2011 / Accepted: 8 July 2011 / Published: 19 July 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and compared with different plant fiber (wheat, bamboo, apple, psyllium and inulin) behaviors, in the same in vitro conditions. Ferrous sulfate was added to yoghurts with each type of fiber. The gastric environment was simulated with HCl (pH 1.0–2.0). The duodenal environment was simulated with NaHCO3 (pH 6.8–7.2) and a dialysis tubing cellulose membrane. Results showed that chitosan had the highest iron retention percentages (53.2% at 30 min; 56.8% at 60 min) interacting in a more pronounced manner with iron than the plant fibers used in this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: Biochemistry and Nutritional Science)
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Open AccessArticle Variations in Content and Extractability of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) Arabinoxylans Associated with Genetic and Environmental Factors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4536-4549; doi:10.3390/ijms12074536
Received: 24 February 2011 / Revised: 1 June 2011 / Accepted: 5 July 2011 / Published: 15 July 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arabinoxylans (AX) represent the most abundant components of non-starch polysaccharides in wheat, constituting about 70% of cell wall polysaccharides. An important property of AX is their ability to form highly viscous water solutions; this peculiarity has a significant impact on the technological [...] Read more.
Arabinoxylans (AX) represent the most abundant components of non-starch polysaccharides in wheat, constituting about 70% of cell wall polysaccharides. An important property of AX is their ability to form highly viscous water solutions; this peculiarity has a significant impact on the technological characteristics of wheat and determines the physiologically positive influence in consumption. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), the raw material for pasta production, is one of the most important crops in Italy. As part of a large project aimed at improving durum wheat quality, the characterization of the nutritional and technological aspects of whole grains was considered. Particular attention was addressed to identify the best suited genotypes for the production of innovative types of pasta with enhanced functional and organoleptic properties. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genetic variability of AX by examining a group of durum wheat genotypes collected at two localities in Italy for two consecutive years. The environmental influence on AX content and extractability was also evaluated. Variability in the AX fraction contents was observed; the results indicated that AX fractions of durum wheat grain can be affected by the genotype and environment characteristics and the different contribution of genotype and environment to total variation was evidenced. The genotype × environment (G × E) interaction was significant for all examined traits, the variations due to G × E being lower than that of genotype or environment. The data and the statistical analysis allowed identification of the Italian durum wheat varieties that were consistently higher in total arabinoxilans; in addition, principal component analysis biplots illustrated that for arabinoxylan fractions some varieties responded differently in various environment climatic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: Biochemistry and Nutritional Science)
Open AccessArticle How Does the Preparation of Rye Porridge Affect Molecular Weight Distribution of Extractable Dietary Fibers?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(5), 3381-3393; doi:10.3390/ijms12053381
Received: 27 February 2011 / Revised: 6 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 May 2011 / Published: 24 May 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe [...] Read more.
Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-D-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: Biochemistry and Nutritional Science)
Open AccessArticle Fiber Concentrate from Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) Bagase: Characterization and Application as Bakery Product Ingredient
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(4), 2174-2186; doi:10.3390/ijms12042174
Received: 22 February 2011 / Revised: 12 March 2011 / Accepted: 15 March 2011 / Published: 29 March 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Orange is a tropical fruit used in the juice industry, yielding important quantities of by products. The objective of this work was to obtain a dietary fiber-rich orange bagasse product (DFROBP), evaluate its chemical composition and its use in the preparation of [...] Read more.
Orange is a tropical fruit used in the juice industry, yielding important quantities of by products. The objective of this work was to obtain a dietary fiber-rich orange bagasse product (DFROBP), evaluate its chemical composition and its use in the preparation of a bakery product (muffin). Muffins containing two different levels of DFROBP were studied regarding chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility, predicted glyceamic index and acceptability in a sensory test. DFROBP showed low fat and high dietary fiber contents. The soluble and insoluble dietary fiber fractions were balanced, which is of importance for the health beneficial effects of fiber sources. DFROBP-containing muffins showed the same rapidly digestible starch content as the reference muffin, whilst the slowly digestible starch level increased with the addition of DFROBP. However, the resistant starch content decreased when DFROBP increased in the muffin. The addition of DFROBP to muffin decreased the predicted glyceamic index, but no difference was found between the muffins prepared with the two DFROBP levels. The sensory score did not show difference between control muffin and that added with 10% of DFROBP. The addition of DFROBP to bakery products can be an alternative for people requiring low glyceamic response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: Biochemistry and Nutritional Science)
Open AccessArticle Effects of New Dietary Fiber from Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) on Gut Function and Intestinal Microflora in Adult Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(4), 2088-2099; doi:10.3390/ijms12042088
Received: 18 February 2011 / Revised: 11 March 2011 / Accepted: 15 March 2011 / Published: 25 March 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF) or cellulose (CF) diet (control) for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01). The fecal lipids content (% DW) of the feces sampled on the final days of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01). Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058). Occupation ratios of Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster IV were significantly greater in the cecal flora of the UF group. Our results suggest that ume fiber possesses the fecal lipid excretion effects and feces bulking effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: Biochemistry and Nutritional Science)
Open AccessArticle Detecting Molecular Features of Spectra Mainly Associated with Structural and Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Co-Products from BioEthanol Production Using DRIFT with Uni- and Multivariate Molecular Spectral Analyses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 1921-1935; doi:10.3390/ijms12031921
Received: 7 January 2011 / Revised: 21 February 2011 / Accepted: 7 March 2011 / Published: 17 March 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to use DRIFT spectroscopy with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel approach to detect molecular features of spectra mainly associated with carbohydrate in the co-products (wheat DDGS, corn DDGS, blend DDGS) from bioethanol processing in comparison with original feedstock (wheat (Triticum), corn (Zea mays)). The carbohydrates related molecular spectral bands included: A_Cell (structural carbohydrates, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1), A_1240 (structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 1240 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 1292–1198 cm−1), A_CHO (total carbohydrates, peaks region and baseline: ca. 1187–950 cm-1), A_928 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 928 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 952–910 cm−1), A_860 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 860 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 880–827 cm-1), H_1415 (structural carbohydrate, peak height centered at ca. 1415 cm−1 with baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1), H_1370 (structural carbohydrate, peak height at ca. 1370 cm−1 with a baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1). The study shows that the grains had lower spectral intensity (KM Unit) of the cellulosic compounds of A_1240 (8.5 vs. 36.6, P < 0.05), higher (P < 0.05) intensities of the non-structural carbohydrate of A_928 (17.3 vs. 2.0) and A_860 (20.7 vs. 7.6) than their co-products from bioethanol processing. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak area intensities of A_Cell (structural CHO) at 1292–1198 cm−1 and A_CHO (total CHO) at 1187–950 cm−1 with average molecular infrared intensity KM unit of 226.8 and 508.1, respectively. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak height intensities of H_1415 and H_1370 (structural CHOs) with average intensities 1.35 and 1.15, respectively. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses were able to discriminate and classify between the corn and corn DDGS molecular spectra, but not wheat and wheat DDGS. This study indicated that the bioethanol processing changes carbohydrate molecular structural profiles, compared with the original grains. However, the sensitivities of different types of carbohydrates and different grains (corn and wheat) to the processing differ. In general, the bioethanol processing increases the molecular spectral intensities for the structural carbohydrates and decreases the intensities for the non-structural carbohydrates. Further study is needed to quantify carbohydrate related molecular spectral features of the bioethanol co-products in relation to nutrient supply and availability of carbohydrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: Biochemistry and Nutritional Science)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 1836-1853; doi:10.3390/ijms12031836
Received: 3 January 2011 / Revised: 12 February 2011 / Accepted: 22 February 2011 / Published: 10 March 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old ( [...] Read more.
The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: Biochemistry and Nutritional Science)
Open AccessArticle Immunomodulatory Activity of Dietary Fiber: Arabinoxylan and Mixed-Linked Beta-Glucan Isolated from Barley Show Modest Activities in Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 570-587; doi:10.3390/ijms12010570
Received: 26 November 2010 / Revised: 20 December 2010 / Accepted: 4 January 2011 / Published: 18 January 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High intake of dietary fiber is claimed to protect against development of colorectal cancer. Barley is a rich source of dietary fiber, and possible immunomodulatory effects of barley polysaccharides might explain a potential protective effect. Dietary fiber was isolated by extraction and [...] Read more.
High intake of dietary fiber is claimed to protect against development of colorectal cancer. Barley is a rich source of dietary fiber, and possible immunomodulatory effects of barley polysaccharides might explain a potential protective effect. Dietary fiber was isolated by extraction and enzyme treatment. A mixed-linked β-glucan (WSM-TPX, 96.5% β-glucan, Mw 886 kDa), an arabinoxylan (WUM-BS-LA, 96.4% arabinoxylan, Mw 156 kDa), a mixed-linked β-glucan rich fraction containing 10% arabinoxylan (WSM-TP) and an arabinoxylan rich fraction containing 30% mixed-linked β-glucan (WUM-BS) showed no significant effect on IL-8 secretion and proliferation of two intestinal epithelial cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29, and had no significant effect on the NF-κB activity in the monocytic cell line U937-3κB-LUC. Further enriched arabinoxylan fractions (WUM-BS-LA) from different barley varieties (Tyra, NK96300, SB94897 and CDCGainer) were less active than the mixed-linked β-glucan rich fractions (WSM-TP and WSM-TPX) in the complement-fixing test. The mixed-linked β-glucan rich fraction from NK96300 and CDCGainer showed similar activities as the positive control while mixed‑linked β-glucan rich fractions from Tyra and SB94897 were less active. From these results it is concluded that the isolated high molecular weight mixed-linked β-glucans and arabinoxylans from barley show low immunological responses in selected in vitro test systems and thus possible anti-colon cancer effects of barley dietary fiber cannot be explained by our observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: Biochemistry and Nutritional Science)

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