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Susceptibility of Mycobacterium immunogenum and Pseudomonas fluorescens to Formaldehyde and Non-Formaldehyde Biocides in Semi-Synthetic Metalworking Fluids
Environmental Genetics and Molecular Toxicology Division, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
Present address: Children’s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
Present address: Environment Canada, National Water Research Institute (NWRI), 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2010; in revised form: 17 January 2011 / Accepted: 18 January 2011 / Published: 20 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocides
Abstract: Mycobacterium immunogenum, a newly identified member of the Mycobacterium chelonae_M. abscessus complex is considered a potential etiological agent for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in machine workers exposed to contaminated metalworking fluid (MWF). This study investigated the biocidal efficacy of the frequently applied commercial formaldehyde-releasing (HCHO) biocides Grotan and Bioban CS 1135 and non-HCHO type biocides Kathon 886 MW (isothiazolone) and Preventol CMK 40 (phenolic) toward this emerging mycobacterial species (M. immunogenum) in HP-linked MWFs, alone and in presence of a representative of the Gram-negative bacterial contaminants, Pseudomonas fluorescens, using two semi-synthetic MWF matrices (designated Fluid A and Fluid B). Relative biocide susceptibility analysis indicated M immunogenum to be comparatively more resistant (2–1600 fold) than P. fluorescens to the tested biocides under the varied test conditions. In terms of minimum inhibitory concentration, Kathon was the most effective biocide against M. immunogenum. Fluid factors had a major effect on the biocide susceptibility. Fluid A formulation provided greater protective advantage to the test organisms than Fluid B. Fluid dialysis (Fluid A) led to an increased biocidal efficacy of Grotan, Kathon and Preventol against M. immunogenum further implying the role of native fluid components. Used fluid matrix, in general, increased the resistance of the two test organisms against the biocides, with certain exceptions. M. immunogenum resistance increased in presence of the co-contaminant P. fluorescens. Collectively, the results show a multifactorial nature of the biocide susceptibility of MWF-colonizing mycobacteria and highlight the importance of more rigorous efficacy testing and validation of biocides prior to and during their application in metalworking fluid operations.
Keywords: metalworking fluid; Mycobacterium immunogenum; Pseudomonas fluorescens; biocide susceptibility; biocide resistance; formaldehyde
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Selvaraju, S.B.; Khan, I.U.H.; Yadav, J.S. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium immunogenum and Pseudomonas fluorescens to Formaldehyde and Non-Formaldehyde Biocides in Semi-Synthetic Metalworking Fluids. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 725-741.
Selvaraju SB, Khan IUH, Yadav JS. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium immunogenum and Pseudomonas fluorescens to Formaldehyde and Non-Formaldehyde Biocides in Semi-Synthetic Metalworking Fluids. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(1):725-741.
Selvaraju, Suresh B.; Khan, Izhar U. H.; Yadav, Jagjit S. 2011. "Susceptibility of Mycobacterium immunogenum and Pseudomonas fluorescens to Formaldehyde and Non-Formaldehyde Biocides in Semi-Synthetic Metalworking Fluids." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 1: 725-741.