Next Article in Journal
Modulation of Ca2+ Signals by Epigallocatechin-3-gallate(EGCG) in Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons
Next Article in Special Issue
Development of Proteomics-Based Fungicides: New Strategies for Environmentally Friendly Control of Fungal Plant Diseases
Previous Article in Journal
In Silico Theoretical Molecular Modeling for Alzheimer’s Disease: The Nicotine-Curcumin Paradigm in Neuroprotection and Neurotherapy
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 725-741; doi:10.3390/ijms12010725

Susceptibility of Mycobacterium immunogenum and Pseudomonas fluorescens to Formaldehyde and Non-Formaldehyde Biocides in Semi-Synthetic Metalworking Fluids

Environmental Genetics and Molecular Toxicology Division, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
Present address: Children’s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
Present address: Environment Canada, National Water Research Institute (NWRI), 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2010 / Revised: 17 January 2011 / Accepted: 18 January 2011 / Published: 20 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocides)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [472 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |  

Abstract

Mycobacterium immunogenum, a newly identified member of the Mycobacterium chelonae_M. abscessus complex is considered a potential etiological agent for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in machine workers exposed to contaminated metalworking fluid (MWF). This study investigated the biocidal efficacy of the frequently applied commercial formaldehyde-releasing (HCHO) biocides Grotan and Bioban CS 1135 and non-HCHO type biocides Kathon 886 MW (isothiazolone) and Preventol CMK 40 (phenolic) toward this emerging mycobacterial species (M. immunogenum) in HP-linked MWFs, alone and in presence of a representative of the Gram-negative bacterial contaminants, Pseudomonas fluorescens, using two semi-synthetic MWF matrices (designated Fluid A and Fluid B). Relative biocide susceptibility analysis indicated M immunogenum to be comparatively more resistant (2–1600 fold) than P. fluorescens to the tested biocides under the varied test conditions. In terms of minimum inhibitory concentration, Kathon was the most effective biocide against M. immunogenum. Fluid factors had a major effect on the biocide susceptibility. Fluid A formulation provided greater protective advantage to the test organisms than Fluid B. Fluid dialysis (Fluid A) led to an increased biocidal efficacy of Grotan, Kathon and Preventol against M. immunogenum further implying the role of native fluid components. Used fluid matrix, in general, increased the resistance of the two test organisms against the biocides, with certain exceptions. M. immunogenum resistance increased in presence of the co-contaminant P. fluorescens. Collectively, the results show a multifactorial nature of the biocide susceptibility of MWF-colonizing mycobacteria and highlight the importance of more rigorous efficacy testing and validation of biocides prior to and during their application in metalworking fluid operations. View Full-Text
Keywords: metalworking fluid; Mycobacterium immunogenum; Pseudomonas fluorescens; biocide susceptibility; biocide resistance; formaldehyde metalworking fluid; Mycobacterium immunogenum; Pseudomonas fluorescens; biocide susceptibility; biocide resistance; formaldehyde
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Selvaraju, S.B.; Khan, I.U.H.; Yadav, J.S. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium immunogenum and Pseudomonas fluorescens to Formaldehyde and Non-Formaldehyde Biocides in Semi-Synthetic Metalworking Fluids. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 725-741.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top