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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 2150-2163; doi:10.3390/ijerph120202150

Antimicrobial Resistance in Commensal Escherichia coli from Pigs during Metaphylactic Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole Treatment and in the Post-Exposure Period

Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Zielona Góra, Monte Cassino 21b, 65-561 Zielona Góra, Poland
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Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 15 November 2014 / Revised: 6 February 2015 / Accepted: 10 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
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Abstract

The prevalence of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistance in commensal E. coli from pigs was tested in this study. E. coli was derived from three groups of piglets in successive stages of metaphylactic therapy and from two groups of sows 10 and 18 weeks after the treatment. MIC values of TMP and SMX were determined for a total of 352 strains. The presence of resistance genes (dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA17, sul1, sul2, sul3) and class 1 and 2 integron-associated dfrA gene cassettes was tested. Resistance to TMP was very high during the administration of the antimicrobial (from 97 to 100%) and amounted to 86% and 69% in the post-exposure period; MIC > 32 mg/L. The isolates from all groups of pigs were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, with MIC > 1028 mg/L. The dfrA1 and sul1 genes (as part of integrons) dominated in E. coli from piglets, but the dfrA12 and sul1 genes were prevalent in E. coli from sows. Coexistence of the different dfrA genes was detected in 71 isolates from all groups of swine. Transcription analysis revealed that most of these genes were not transcribed, particularly gene cassettes of class 1 integrons. The research revealed a high level of resistance associated with the metaphylactic treatment, persistence and circulation of resistance in bacterial populations. Diverse genetic background with multiple and not transcribed resistance genes was observed. View Full-Text
Keywords: E. coli; food production animals; metaphylaxis; antimicrobial resistance; resistance genes; transcription analysis; resistance genes expression, integrons; integron promoters E. coli; food production animals; metaphylaxis; antimicrobial resistance; resistance genes; transcription analysis; resistance genes expression, integrons; integron promoters
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mazurek, J.; Bok, E.; Stosik, M.; Baldy-Chudzik, K. Antimicrobial Resistance in Commensal Escherichia coli from Pigs during Metaphylactic Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole Treatment and in the Post-Exposure Period. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 2150-2163.

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