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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 1487-1547; doi:10.3390/ijerph120201487

Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens

1
Department of Biology, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, NM 88130, USA
2
Department of Clinical Laboratory and Nutritional Sciences, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854, USA
3
QC Laboratory, Harvest and Post-Harvest Technology Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE), Seven Bungalows, Versova, Andheri (W), Mumbai 400061, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2015 / Published: 28 January 2015
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Abstract

Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial; bacteria; resistance; efflux pumps; multidrug resistance; food pathogens; Staphylococcus aureus; Enterobacteriaceae; Vibrionaceae; infection antimicrobial; bacteria; resistance; efflux pumps; multidrug resistance; food pathogens; Staphylococcus aureus; Enterobacteriaceae; Vibrionaceae; infection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Andersen, J.L.; He, G.-X.; Kakarla, P.; KC, R.; Kumar, S.; Lakra, W.S.; Mukherjee, M.M.; Ranaweera, I.; Shrestha, U.; Tran, T.; Varela, M.F. Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 1487-1547.

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