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Special Issue "Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment"

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Cecilia Stålsby Stålsby Lundborg

Global Health - Health Systems and Policy (HSP): Medicines, focusing antibiotics, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet,Tomtebodavägen 18 A, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: public health aspects of antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in the environment especially water; interventions to mitigate spread in the environment of residues, bacteria and genes
Guest Editor
Dr. Ashok J. Tamhankar

Global Health - Health Systems and Policy (HSP): Medicines, focusing antibiotics, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18 A, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Indian Initiative for Management of Antibiotic Resistance, Department of Environmental Medicine, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Agar Road, Ujjain, India
School of Biotechnology, KIIT university, Bhubaneswar, India
Website | E-Mail
Interests: antimicrobial pollution of the environment; resistant microbes in the environment; remediation of antimicrobials, resistant microbes, and resistance genes from the environment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antimicrobial resistance, especially antibiotic resistance, is considered one of the major challenges to global public health. A key driver for the development of antimicrobial/antibiotic resistance is exposure of microbes/bacteria to antimicrobials/antibiotics/metals. Very low levels of residue concentrations, that are often present in the environment, are sufficient to trigger resistance development. A One health perspective, i.e. seeing humans, animals and the environment as interconnected is essential for managing the antimicrobial/antibiotic resistance challenge. Involvement of antimicrobial/antibiotic residues/resistance in the environment should be a critical component of the One health approach. Antimicrobial spread in the environment results from the waste from the whole chain of events, from production to sales to utilization and excretion in metabolized or un-metabolized form after use. Much still needs to be known about the qualitative and quantitative spread of antimicrobial/antibiotic residues and resistance in the environment, the consequences of this spread, particularly the transfer of resistant bacteria and/or resistance genes from environmental microbes and commensals to pathogens infecting humans and/or animals. Even more important is to find implementable solutions to reduce the spread of antimicrobials/antibiotic residues and antimicrobial/antibiotic resistance and resistance markers in and from the environment.

This Special Issue seeks research papers on various aspects of antimicrobial/antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in the environment and their remediation from the environment. Especially we encourage the submission of interdisciplinary work and multi-country collaborative research. We also encourage the submission of health systems and health policy-related manuscripts that focus on issues related to antimicrobial/antibiotic residues/resistance in the environment and the remediation aspect of it. We welcome original research papers using different study designs as well as systematic reviews and meta-analysis.

Prof. Cecilia StålsbyLundborg
Dr. Ashok J. Tamhankar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Public health aspects of antimicrobial/antibiotic residues in the environment

  • Antimicrobial/antibiotic residues in the environment, antimicrobial/antibiotic/metal resistant microbes/bacteria in the environment, antimicrobial/antibiotic/metal resistance genes in the environment

  • Remediation of antimicrobials, resistance microbes and resistance genes from environmental, health systems and health policy focusing on issues related to antimicrobial/antibiotic residues/resistance in the environment and their remediation

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Resistance of Escherichia coli in Turkeys after Therapeutic or Environmental Exposition with Enrofloxacin Depending on Flooring
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1993; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091993
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Gaining knowledge about the spread of resistance against antibacterial agents is a primary challenge in livestock farming. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of double antibiotic treatment (at days 10–14 and days 26–30) with enrofloxacin or solely environmental exposition
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Gaining knowledge about the spread of resistance against antibacterial agents is a primary challenge in livestock farming. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of double antibiotic treatment (at days 10–14 and days 26–30) with enrofloxacin or solely environmental exposition (identical times, directly into the litter) on resistance against antibacterial agents in commensal Escherichia coli in comparison with the control (without treatment), depending on different flooring. A total of 720 Big 6 turkeys participated in three trials. Four different flooring designs were examined: An entire floor pen covered with litter, a floor pen with heating, a partially slatted flooring including 50% littered area, and a fully slatted flooring with a sand bath. A total of 864 Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from cloacal swabs and poultry manure samples at days 2, 9, 15, 21, and 35. The broth microdilution method (MIC) was used to determine the resistance of isolates to enrofloxacin and ampicillin. A double antibiotic treatment with enrofloxacin reduced the proportion of susceptible Escherichia coli isolates significantly in all flooring designs. Simulation of water losses had no significant effect, nor did the flooring design. Ampicillin-resistant isolates were observed, despite not using ampicillin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Recovered from Selected Aquatic Resources in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, and Its Significance to Public Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071506
Received: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
The prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms, as well as the proliferation of antimicrobial resistance, pose a significant threat to public health. However, the magnitude of the impact of aquatic environs concerning the advent and propagation of resistance genes remains vague. Escherichia coli (E.
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The prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms, as well as the proliferation of antimicrobial resistance, pose a significant threat to public health. However, the magnitude of the impact of aquatic environs concerning the advent and propagation of resistance genes remains vague. Escherichia coli (E. coli) are widespread and encompass a variety of strains, ranging from non-pathogenic to highly pathogenic. This study reports on the incidence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of E. coli isolates recovered from the Nahoon beach and its canal waters in South Africa. A total of 73 out of 107 (68.2%) Polymerase chain reaction confirmed E. coli isolates were found to be affirmative for at least one virulence factor. These comprised of enteropathogenic E. coli 11 (10.3%), enteroinvasive E. coli 14 (13.1%), and neonatal meningitis E. coli 48 (44.9%). The phenotypic antibiogram profiles of the confirmed isolates revealed that all 73 (100%) were resistant to ampicillin, whereas 67 (91.8%) of the pathotypes were resistant to amikacin, gentamicin, and ceftazidime. About 61 (83.6%) and 51 (69.9%) were resistant to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, respectively, and about 21.9% (16) demonstrated multiple instances of antibiotic resistance, with 100% exhibiting resistance to eight antibiotics. The conclusion from our findings is that the Nahoon beach and its canal waters are reservoirs of potentially virulent and antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains, which thus constitute a potent public health risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Resistance in Food Animals and the Environment in Nigeria: A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061284
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a global health threat, which has elicited a high-level political declaration at the United Nations General Assembly, 2016. In response, member countries agreed to pay greater attention to the surveillance and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship. The Nigeria
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a global health threat, which has elicited a high-level political declaration at the United Nations General Assembly, 2016. In response, member countries agreed to pay greater attention to the surveillance and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship. The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control called for a review of AMR in Nigeria using a “One Health approach”. As anecdotal evidence suggests that food animal health and production rely heavily on antimicrobials, it becomes imperative to understand AMR trends in food animals and the environment. We reviewed previous studies to curate data and evaluate the contributions of food animals and the environment (2000–2016) to the AMR burden in Nigeria using a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flowchart focused on three areas: Antimicrobial resistance, residues, and antiseptics studies. Only one of the 48 antimicrobial studies did not report multidrug resistance. At least 18 bacterial spp. were found to be resistant to various locally available antimicrobials. All 16 residue studies reported high levels of drug residues either in the form of prevalence or concentration above the recommended international limit. Fourteen different “resistotypes” were found in some commonly used antiseptics. High levels of residues and AMR were found in food animals destined for the human food chain. High levels of residues and antimicrobials discharged into environments sustain the AMR pool. These had evolved into potential public health challenges that need attention. These findings constitute public health threats for Nigeria’s teeming population and require attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Linkages between Knowledge and Use of Veterinary Antibiotics by Pig Farmers in Rural China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061126
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
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Abstract
Improper use of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) has led to antibiotic resistance and food safety issues that are harmful for sustainable development and public health. In this study, farmers’ knowledge influencing their usage of veterinary antibiotics was analyzed based on a survey of 654
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Improper use of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) has led to antibiotic resistance and food safety issues that are harmful for sustainable development and public health. In this study, farmers’ knowledge influencing their usage of veterinary antibiotics was analyzed based on a survey of 654 pig farmers in Funing County, China. A behavior probability model was constructed, and a Matlab simulation was used to evaluate the dynamic changes in farmers’ behavioral choice regarding VAs use. The survey results showed that the 654 pig farmers’ knowledge of VAs were relatively poor, along with a high occurrence of improper behavior. Specifically, 68.35% of the 654 surveyed pig farmers admitted their violation of VAs use regulations, while 55.50% among them overused and 24.31% among them misused VAs. The simulation results showed that the probability of improper VA use decreased with the increase in farmers’ knowledge about VA use specification, and when farmers’ knowledge about the hazards of VA residues increased. However, when farmers had a high level of knowledge about relevant laws and their penalties, there was still a high probability of improper VA use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Antibiotic-Resistant Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolated from Rooftop Rainwater-Harvesting Tanks in the Eastern Cape, South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050892
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although many developing countries use harvested rainwater (HRW) for drinking and other household purposes, its quality is seldom monitored. Continuous assessment of the microbial quality of HRW would ensure the safety of users of such water. The current study investigated the prevalence of
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Although many developing countries use harvested rainwater (HRW) for drinking and other household purposes, its quality is seldom monitored. Continuous assessment of the microbial quality of HRW would ensure the safety of users of such water. The current study investigated the prevalence of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in HRW tanks in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Rainwater samples were collected weekly between June and September 2016 from 11 tanks in various areas of the province. Enumeration of E. coli was performed using the Colilert®18/Quanti-Tray® 2000 method. E. coli isolates were obtained and screened for their virulence potentials using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and subsequently tested for antibiotic resistance using the disc-diffusion method against 11 antibiotics. The pathotype most detected was the neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC) (ibeA 28%) while pathotype enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) was not detected. The highest resistance of the E. coli isolates was observed against Cephalothin (76%). All tested pathotypes were susceptible to Gentamicin, and 52% demonstrated multiple-antibiotic resistance (MAR). The results of the current study are of public health concern since the use of untreated harvested rainwater for potable purposes may pose a risk of transmission of pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant E. coli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Multiresistant Bacteria Isolated from Activated Sludge in Austria
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030479
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
Wastewater contains different kinds of contaminants, including antibiotics and bacterial isolates with human-generated antibiotic resistances. In industrialized countries most of the wastewater is processed in wastewater treatment plants which do not only include commercial wastewater, but also wastewater from hospitals. Three multiresistant pathogens—extended
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Wastewater contains different kinds of contaminants, including antibiotics and bacterial isolates with human-generated antibiotic resistances. In industrialized countries most of the wastewater is processed in wastewater treatment plants which do not only include commercial wastewater, but also wastewater from hospitals. Three multiresistant pathogens—extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-harbouring Enterobacteriaceae (Gram negative bacilli), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE)—were chosen for screening in a state of the art wastewater treatment plant in Austria. Over an investigation period of six months all three multiresistant pathogens could be isolated from activated sludge. ESBL was the most common resistance mechanism, which was found in different species of Enterobacteriaceae, and in one Aeromonas spp. Sequencing of ESBL genes revealed the dominance of genes encoding members of CTX-M β-lactamases family and a gene encoding for PER-1 ESBL was detected for the first time in Austria. MRSA and VRE could be isolated sporadically, including one EMRSA-15 isolate. Whereas ESBL is well documented as a surface water contaminant, reports of MRSA and VRE are rare. The results of this study show that these three multiresistant phenotypes were present in activated sludge, as well as species and genes which were not reported before in the region. The ESBL-harbouring Gram negative bacilli were most common. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
Open AccessArticle Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance Genotypes in Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Isolates from Poultry Farms in Uganda
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020324
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
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Abstract
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are foodborne pathogens of global public health significance. The aim of this study was to subtype a collection of 85 NTS originating from poultry farms in Uganda, and to evaluate a subgroup of phenotypically resistant isolates for common antimicrobial resistance
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Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are foodborne pathogens of global public health significance. The aim of this study was to subtype a collection of 85 NTS originating from poultry farms in Uganda, and to evaluate a subgroup of phenotypically resistant isolates for common antimicrobial resistance genes and associated integrons. All isolates were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Phenotypically resistant isolates (n = 54) were screened by PCR for the most relevant AMR genes corresponding to their phenotypic resistance pattern, and all 54 isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of integron class 1 and 2 encoding genes. These genes are known to commonly encode resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, sulfonamide and chloramphenicol. PFGE revealed 15 pulsotypes representing 11 serotypes from 75 isolates, as 10 were non-typable. Thirty one (57.4%) of the 54 resistant isolates carried at least one of the seven genes (blaTEM-1, cmlA, tetA, qnrS, sul1, dhfrI, dhfrVII) identified by PCR and six (11%) carried class 1 integrons. This study has shown that a diversity of NTS-clones are present in Ugandan poultry farm settings, while at the same time similar NTS-clones occur in different farms and areas. The presence of resistance genes to important antimicrobials used in human and veterinary medicine has been demonstrated, hence the need to strengthen strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance at all levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Trends in Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins and Carbapenems among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. Isolates in a District in Western India during 2004–2014
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010155
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Surveillance data on the level of resistant bacteria is needed to inform strategies to reduce the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the non-susceptibility trends to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella
[...] Read more.
Surveillance data on the level of resistant bacteria is needed to inform strategies to reduce the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the non-susceptibility trends to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates from the district of Nashik in Western India during the period 2004–2014. Antibacterial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates was performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method to determine inhibitory zone diameters. The change in proportions of non-susceptible bacteria over calendar time was investigated with spline transformations in a logistic regression model. For the extended-spectrum cephalosporins, the proportions of non-susceptible E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates were above 78.4% and 84.9% throughout the study period, respectively. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates exhibited carbapenem non-susceptibility levels as high as 76.9% and 84.1% respectively. The proportions of extended-spectrum betalactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates ranged from 38.3–85.9% in E. coli and from 45.1–93.1% in Klebsiella spp. Significantly higher proportions of non-susceptible and ESBL-producing isolates were found among isolates from inpatients compared to isolates from outpatients for both E. coli and Klebsiella spp. (p < 0.050). The high proportions of non-susceptible isolates observed show that there is great need to focus on optimal use of antibiotics to reduce the development of antibiotic resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle High Proportions of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter spp. Isolates in a District in Western India: A Four-Year Antibiotic Susceptibility Study of Clinical Isolates
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010153
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of the study was to determine the proportions of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter spp. isolates from the district of Nashik in Western India during the period from 2011–2014. Antibacterial susceptibility testing of isolates from inpatients and outpatients was performed using Kirby–Bauer disc
[...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to determine the proportions of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter spp. isolates from the district of Nashik in Western India during the period from 2011–2014. Antibacterial susceptibility testing of isolates from inpatients and outpatients was performed using Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method to determine inhibitory zone diameters. Proportions of non-susceptible isolates were calculated from the antibacterial susceptibility data. MDR was defined as an isolate being non-susceptible to at least one antibacterial agent in at least three antibacterial categories. The change in proportions of MDR isolates; extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates; and non-susceptible isolates to specific antibacterial categories over calendar time was investigated by logistic regression. The proportions of MDR and ESBL-producing isolates ranged from 89.4% to 95.9% and from 87.9% to 94.0%; respectively. The proportions of non-susceptible isolates to aminoglycosides; carbapenems; antipseudomonal penicillins/β-lactamase inhibitors; cephalosporins; folate pathway inhibitors; or penicillins/β-lactamase inhibitors exceeded 77.5%. Proportions of fluoroquinolone and tetracycline non-susceptible isolates ranged from 65.3% to 83.3% and from 71.3% to 75.9%; respectively. No changes in trends were observed over time; except for a decreasing trend in fluoroquinolone non-susceptible isolates (OR = 0.75 (95% CI, 0.62–0.91)). Significantly higher proportions of non-susceptible; MDR and ESBL-producing isolates were found among isolates from the respiratory system compared to isolates from all other specimen types (p < 0.05). High proportions of MDR Acinetobacter spp. isolates were observed in the period from 2011–2014. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes are needed to prevent the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Antibiotic Resistance of Acinetobacter spp. Isolates from the River Danube: Susceptibility Stays High
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010052
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 30 December 2017
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Abstract
Acinetobacter spp. occur naturally in many different habitats, including food, soil, and surface waters. In clinical settings, Acinetobacter poses an increasing health problem, causing infections with limited to no antibiotic therapeutic options left. The presence of human generated multidrug resistant strains is well
[...] Read more.
Acinetobacter spp. occur naturally in many different habitats, including food, soil, and surface waters. In clinical settings, Acinetobacter poses an increasing health problem, causing infections with limited to no antibiotic therapeutic options left. The presence of human generated multidrug resistant strains is well documented but the extent to how widely they are distributed within the Acinetobacter population is unknown. In this study, Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from water samples at 14 sites of the whole course of the river Danube. Susceptibility testing was carried out for 14 clinically relevant antibiotics from six different antibiotic classes. Isolates showing a carbapenem resistance phenotype were screened with PCR and sequencing for the underlying resistance mechanism of carbapenem resistance. From the Danube river water, 262 Acinetobacter were isolated, the most common species was Acinetobacter baumannii with 135 isolates. Carbapenem and multiresistant isolates were rare but one isolate could be found which was only susceptible to colistin. The genetic background of carbapenem resistance was mostly based on typical Acinetobacter OXA enzymes but also on VIM-2. The population of Acinetobacter (baumannii and non-baumannii) revealed a significant proportion of human-generated antibiotic resistance and multiresistance, but the majority of the isolates stayed susceptible to most of the tested antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Antibiotic Susceptibility, Genetic Diversity, and the Presence of Toxin Producing Genes in Campylobacter Isolates from Poultry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111400
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
This study examined antibiotic susceptibility, genetic diversity, and characteristics of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates from poultry. Chicken (n = 152) and duck (n = 154) samples were collected from 18 wet markets in Korea. Campylobacter spp. isolated from the carcasses
[...] Read more.
This study examined antibiotic susceptibility, genetic diversity, and characteristics of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates from poultry. Chicken (n = 152) and duck (n = 154) samples were collected from 18 wet markets in Korea. Campylobacter spp. isolated from the carcasses were identified by PCR. The isolated colonies were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to chloramphenicol, amikacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and enrofloxacin. The isolates were also used to analyze genetic diversity using the DiversiLabTM system and were tested for the presence of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 45 poultry samples out of 306 poultry samples (14.7%) and the average levels of Campylobacter contamination were 22.0 CFU/g and 366.1 CFU/g in chicken and duck samples, respectively. Moreover, more than 90% of the isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Genetic correlation analysis showed greater than 95% similarity between 84.4% of the isolates, and three cdt genes (cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) were present in 71.1% of Campylobacter isolates. These results indicate that Campylobacter contamination should be decreased to prevent and treat Campylobacter foodborne illness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Plant Growth, Antibiotic Uptake, and Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in an Endophytic System of Pakchoi under Antibiotic Exposure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111336
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 28 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Antibiotic contamination in agroecosystems may cause serious problems, such as the proliferation of various antibiotic resistant bacteria and the spreading of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment or even to human beings. However, it is unclear whether environmental antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria,
[...] Read more.
Antibiotic contamination in agroecosystems may cause serious problems, such as the proliferation of various antibiotic resistant bacteria and the spreading of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment or even to human beings. However, it is unclear whether environmental antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and ARGs can directly enter into, or occur in, the endophytic systems of plants exposed to pollutants. In this study, a hydroponic experiment exposing pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) to tetracycline, cephalexin, and sulfamethoxazole at 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels and MIC levels, respectively, was conducted to explore plant growth, antibiotic uptake, and the development of antibiotic resistance in endophytic systems. The three antibiotics promoted pakchoi growth at 50% MIC values. Target antibiotics at concentrations ranging from 6.9 to 48.1 µg·kg−1 were detected in the treated vegetables. Additionally, the rates of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria to total cultivable endophytic bacteria significantly increased as the antibiotics accumulated in the plants. The detection and quantification of ARGs indicated that four types, tetX, blaCTX-M, and sul1 and sul2, which correspond to tetracycline, cephalexin, and sulfamethoxazole resistance, respectively, were present in the pakchoi endophytic system and increased with the antibiotic concentrations. The results highlight a potential risk of the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in vegetable endophytic systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Tigecycline Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Austrian River Water
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1169; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101169
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 September 2017 / Published: 3 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are spreading worldwide in medical settings but also in the environment. These resistant bacteria illustrate a major health problem in our times, and last-line antibiotics such as tigecycline represent an ultimate therapy option. Reports on tigecycline non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae are
[...] Read more.
Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are spreading worldwide in medical settings but also in the environment. These resistant bacteria illustrate a major health problem in our times, and last-line antibiotics such as tigecycline represent an ultimate therapy option. Reports on tigecycline non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae are presented with regard to medical settings but are rare with that for the environment. The aim of this study was to characterize two tigecycline non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from the river Mur, and to question the resistance mechanism. The screening for chromosomal mutations revealed a deletion and a silent point mutation in one isolate and a point mutation in the other isolate all within the ramR allele. RamR acts as repressor and prevents overexpression of ramA. These mutations are likely to cause a resistant phenotype due to the overexpression of AcrAB-TolC. MLST revealed that the isolates belonged to two unrelated MLST types (ST2392 and ST2394). Both isolates only revealed resistance to tigecycline and tetracycline. This is one of the rare reports of tigecycline-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from surface water. The presence of two genetically different isolates suggests that the river water may bear substances that favor mutations that can lead to this efflux pump-driven resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Recreational Waters and Beach Sand in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091001
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Background: Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to commonly used antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial-resistant determinants in nature, and the marine environment may serve as a reservoir for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study determined the antibiotic sensitivity profile of
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Background: Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to commonly used antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial-resistant determinants in nature, and the marine environment may serve as a reservoir for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study determined the antibiotic sensitivity profile of S. aureus isolated from selected beach water and intertidal beach sand in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: Two hundred and forty-nine beach sand and water samples were obtained from 10 beaches from April 2015 to April 2016. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the samples using standard microbiological methods and subjected to susceptibility testing to 15 antibiotics. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was detected by susceptibility to oxacillin and growth on Brilliance MRSA II agar. Antibiotic resistance genes including mecA, femA rpoB, blaZ, ermB, ermA, ermC, vanA, vanB, tetK and tetM were screened. Results: Thirty isolates (12.3%) were positive for S. aureus by PCR with over 50% showing phenotypic resistance to methicillin. Resistance of S. aureus to antibiotics varied considerably with the highest resistance recorded to ampicillin and penicillin (96.7%), rifampicin and clindamycin (80%), oxacillin (73.3%) and erythromycin (70%). S. aureus revealed varying susceptibility to imipenem (96.7%), levofloxacin (86.7%), chloramphenicol (83.3%), cefoxitin (76.7%), ciprofloxacin (66.7%), gentamycin (63.3%), tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (56.7%), and vancomycin and doxycycline (50%). All 30 (100%) S. aureus isolates showed multiple antibiotic-resistant patterns (resistant to three or more antibiotics). The mecA, femA, rpoB, blaZ, ermB and tetM genes were detected in 5 (22.7%), 16 (53.3%), 11 (45.8%), 16 (55.2%), 15 (71.4%), and 8 (72.7%) isolates respectively; Conclusions: Results from this study indicate that beach water and sand from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa may be potential reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus which could be transmitted to exposed humans and animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Disinfection of the Water Borne Pathogens Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by Solar Photocatalysis Using Sonochemically Synthesized Reusable Ag@ZnO Core-Shell Nanoparticles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070747
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water borne pathogens present a threat to human health and their disinfection from water poses a challenge, prompting the search for newer methods and newer materials. Disinfection of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive coccal bacterium Staphylococcus aureus in an aqueous
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Water borne pathogens present a threat to human health and their disinfection from water poses a challenge, prompting the search for newer methods and newer materials. Disinfection of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive coccal bacterium Staphylococcus aureus in an aqueous matrix was achieved within 60 and 90 min, respectively, at 35 °C using solar-photocatalysis mediated by sonochemically synthesized Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The efficiency of the process increased with the increase in temperature and at 55 °C the disinfection for the two bacteria could be achieved in 45 and 60 min, respectively. A new ultrasound-assisted chemical precipitation technique was used for the synthesis of Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The characteristics of the synthesized material were established using physical techniques. The material remained stable even at 400 °C. Disinfection efficiency of the Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles was confirmed in the case of real world samples of pond, river, municipal tap water and was found to be better than that of pure ZnO and TiO2 (Degussa P25). When the nanoparticle- based catalyst was recycled and reused for subsequent disinfection experiments, its efficiency did not change remarkably, even after three cycles. The sonochemically synthesized Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles thus have a good potential for application in solar photocatalytic disinfection of water borne pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Antibiotic Resistance and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli Isolates from Hospital Wastewater in Vietnam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070699
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The environmental spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been recognised as a growing public health threat for which hospitals play a significant role. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in Escherichia coli
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The environmental spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been recognised as a growing public health threat for which hospitals play a significant role. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in Escherichia coli isolates from hospital wastewater in Vietnam. Wastewater samples before and after treatment were collected using continuous sampling every month over a year. Standard disk diffusion and E-test were used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was tested using combined disk diffusion. ARGs were detected by polymerase chain reactions. Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 83% of isolates; multidrug resistance was found in 32%. The highest resistance prevalence was found for co-trimoxazole (70%) and the lowest for imipenem (1%). Forty-three percent of isolates were ESBL-producing, with the blaTEM gene being more common than blaCTX-M. Co-harbouring of the blaCTX-M, blaTEM and qepA genes was found in 46% of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin. The large presence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates combined with ARGs in hospital wastewater, even post-treatment, poses a threat to public health. It highlights the need to develop effective processes for hospital wastewater treatment plants to eliminate antibiotic resistant bacteria and ARGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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