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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010052

Antibiotic Resistance of Acinetobacter spp. Isolates from the River Danube: Susceptibility Stays High

1
Institute of Hygiene, Microbiology and Environmental Medicine, Medical University Graz, Neue Stiftingtalstraße 2, 8010 Graz, Austria
2
Institute for Hygiene and Applied Immunology, Water Hygiene, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
3
Interuniversity Cooperation Centre for Water and Health, Vienna University of Technology, 1060 Vienna, Austria
4
Institute of Chemical Engineering, Research Group Environmental Microbiology and Molecular Ecology, Vienna University of Technology, 1060 Vienna, Austria
5
Karl Landsteiner University for Health Sciences, 3500 Krems, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 30 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Abstract

Acinetobacter spp. occur naturally in many different habitats, including food, soil, and surface waters. In clinical settings, Acinetobacter poses an increasing health problem, causing infections with limited to no antibiotic therapeutic options left. The presence of human generated multidrug resistant strains is well documented but the extent to how widely they are distributed within the Acinetobacter population is unknown. In this study, Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from water samples at 14 sites of the whole course of the river Danube. Susceptibility testing was carried out for 14 clinically relevant antibiotics from six different antibiotic classes. Isolates showing a carbapenem resistance phenotype were screened with PCR and sequencing for the underlying resistance mechanism of carbapenem resistance. From the Danube river water, 262 Acinetobacter were isolated, the most common species was Acinetobacter baumannii with 135 isolates. Carbapenem and multiresistant isolates were rare but one isolate could be found which was only susceptible to colistin. The genetic background of carbapenem resistance was mostly based on typical Acinetobacter OXA enzymes but also on VIM-2. The population of Acinetobacter (baumannii and non-baumannii) revealed a significant proportion of human-generated antibiotic resistance and multiresistance, but the majority of the isolates stayed susceptible to most of the tested antibiotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: Acinetobacter; JDS3; river; water; carbapenemases Acinetobacter; JDS3; river; water; carbapenemases
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kittinger, C.; Kirschner, A.; Lipp, M.; Baumert, R.; Mascher, F.; Farnleitner, A.H.; Zarfel, G.E. Antibiotic Resistance of Acinetobacter spp. Isolates from the River Danube: Susceptibility Stays High. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 52.

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