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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 386; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040386

Antibiotic Resistance in an Indian Rural Community: A ‘One-Health’ Observational Study on Commensal Coliform from Humans, Animals, and Water

1
Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health—Health Systems and Policy (HSP): Medicines Focusing Antibiotics, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Department of Pathology, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456006, India
3
Department of Microbiology, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456006, India
4
International Centre for Health Research, Ujjain Charitable Trust Hospital and Research Centre, Ujjain 456006, India
5
Department of Public Health and Environment, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456006, India
6
Indian Initiative for Management of Antibiotic Resistance, Department of Environmental Medicine, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456006, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 6 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environment Health)
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Abstract

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an escalating grim menace to global public health. Our aim is to phenotype and genotype antibiotic-resistant commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) from humans, animals, and water from the same community with a ‘one-health’ approach. The samples were collected from a village belonging to demographic surveillance site of Ruxmaniben Deepchand (R.D.) Gardi Medical College Ujjain, Central India. Commensal coliforms from stool samples from children aged 1–3 years and their environment (animals, drinking water from children's households, common source- and waste-water) were studied for antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid-encoded resistance genes. E. coli isolates from human (n = 127), animal (n = 21), waste- (n = 12), source- (n = 10), and household drinking water (n = 122) carried 70%, 29%, 41%, 30%, and 30% multi-drug resistance, respectively. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers were 57% in human and 23% in environmental isolates. Co-resistance was frequent in penicillin, cephalosporin, and quinolone. Antibiotic-resistance genes blaCTX-M-9 and qnrS were most frequent. Group D-type isolates with resistance genes were mainly from humans and wastewater. Colistin resistance, or the mcr-1 gene, was not detected. The frequency of resistance, co-resistance, and resistant genes are high and similar in coliforms from humans and their environment. This emphasizes the need to mitigate antibiotic resistance with a ‘one-health’ approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; community; environment; India; coliforms; commensal antibiotic resistance; community; environment; India; coliforms; commensal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Purohit, M.R.; Chandran, S.; Shah, H.; Diwan, V.; Tamhankar, A.J.; Stålsby Lundborg, C. Antibiotic Resistance in an Indian Rural Community: A ‘One-Health’ Observational Study on Commensal Coliform from Humans, Animals, and Water. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 386.

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