Special Issue "The Flipped Classroom in Higher Education: Research and Practice"

A special issue of Education Sciences (ISSN 2227-7102).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Christian Stöhr

Division of Engineering Education Research, Department for Applied IT, Chalmers University of Technology, Maskingränd 2, 412 58 Göteborg, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: blended learning; massive open online courses; flipped classroom: educational technology; knowledge commons
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tom Adawi

Division of Engineering Education Research, Department for Applied IT, Chalmers University of Technology, Maskingränd 2, 412 58 Göteborg, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: technology-enhanced learning; threshold concepts; problem solving; authentic learning environments

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the past few years, we have witnessed an increasing interest in the flipped (or inverted) classroom model among university teachers. This propitious approach to reforming university teaching has been fueled by the growing affordability of educational technology in conjunction with recent advances in the learning sciences. In the flipped classroom model, students are encouraged to watch short video lectures (often augmented with quizzes) as preparation for class, and classroom time is dedicated to more active forms of learning, such as peer instruction or collaborative problem solving. Despite the growing interest in the flipped classroom model, relatively little research has focused on evaluating the impact of this pedagogical model in higher education. There is, thus, a need for a deeper understanding of the opportunities and challenges of the flipped classroom model for students and teachers, its impact on student learning, as well as implications for instruction. There is, in particular, a paucity of experimental and quasi-experimental studies, longitudinal studies, and studies with a firm grounding in educational theory. To mitigate this gap, we invite papers based on empirical evidence of a qualitative and/or quantitative nature, and conceptual papers relating the flipped classroom model to contemporary educational theories.

Christian Stöhr
Tom Adawi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Education Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • flipped classroom
  • inverted classroom
  • active learning
  • blended learning
  • educational technology

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Flipped Classroom Research: From “Black Box” to “White Box” Evaluation
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 22; doi:10.3390/educsci8010022
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 28 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
The flipped (or inverted) classroom model has gained increasing interest among university teachers in recent years. In the flipped classroom approach, students are encouraged to watch short video lectures as preparation for class, and classroom time is dedicated to more active forms of
[...] Read more.
The flipped (or inverted) classroom model has gained increasing interest among university teachers in recent years. In the flipped classroom approach, students are encouraged to watch short video lectures as preparation for class, and classroom time is dedicated to more active forms of learning. In this editorial, we provide a thumbnail sketch of the origins and concept of the flipped classroom followed by a summary of the contributions to this special issue, which highlight the importance of considering a range of individual as well as contextual factors when implementing and evaluating the flipped classroom approach. Based on this observation, we propose and briefly discuss realist evaluation as a promising approach to evaluating educational interventions and for advancing our theoretical understanding of the flipped classroom. We argue that realist evaluation provides an analytical framework for posing the next generation of questions about the flipped classroom and we encourage scholars to address the questions: “How or why does the flipped classroom work, for whom, and in what circumstances?” Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Flipped Classroom in Higher Education: Research and Practice)
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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Mixed Methods Study on the Effect of Flipping the Undergraduate Medical Classroom
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 83; doi:10.3390/educsci7040083
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
The flipped classroom model is increasingly being adopted in healthcare education, despite the fact that recent systematic reviews in the nursing and medical education literature suggest that this method of instructional design is not inherently better or worse than the traditional classroom. In
[...] Read more.
The flipped classroom model is increasingly being adopted in healthcare education, despite the fact that recent systematic reviews in the nursing and medical education literature suggest that this method of instructional design is not inherently better or worse than the traditional classroom. In this study, we used a sequential, explanatory mixed methods design to assess the impact of flipping the hepatology classroom for preclinical medical students. Compared to students in the traditional classroom, students in the flipped classroom had significantly lower mean (SD) ratings of their learning experiences (3.48 (1.10) vs. 4.50 (0.72), p < 0.001, d = 1.10), but better performance on the hepatology content of the end-of-course examination (78.0% (11.7%) vs. 74.2 (15.1%), respectively, p < 0.01, d = 0.3). Based upon our qualitative data analyses, we propose that the flipped classroom induced a change in the learning process of students by requiring increased preparation for classroom learning and promoting greater learner autonomy, which resulted in better retention of learned material, but reduced enjoyment of the learning experience. This dissonance in outcomes is captured in the words of one flipped classroom student: “…I hated it while I was learning it, but boy did I remember it…”. Based upon our dissonant outcomes and the inconsistent findings in the literature, we feel that there is still equipoise regarding the effectiveness of the flipped classroom, and further studies are needed to describe ways of making the flipped classroom a more effective (±more enjoyable) learning experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Flipped Classroom in Higher Education: Research and Practice)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Flipped Model to Traditional Classroom Learning in a Professional Pharmacy Course
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 73; doi:10.3390/educsci7030073
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
The flipped classroom is an approach to incorporate active learning that is being used in secondary education, higher education, and professional schools. This study investigates its impact on student learning and confidence in a professional degree program course. A quasi-experimental study was conducted
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The flipped classroom is an approach to incorporate active learning that is being used in secondary education, higher education, and professional schools. This study investigates its impact on student learning and confidence in a professional degree program course. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate pharmacy students enrolled in a semester-long didactic traditional classroom course compared to students learning the same material using a flipped model through online self-study modules in a hands-on experiential learning course. Before and after each learning experience, students of each group completed a 16-item knowledge assessment on four topic areas and rated their level of confidence with each topic area on a Likert scale. There was a significant difference in knowledge with students in the traditional course scoring higher than students using flipped approach in the experiential course. Furthermore, the flipped experiential course students did not improve assessment scores from pre-test to post-test. For confidence rating, the traditional course group ranked confidence higher than the flipped experiential group for all topics. These findings challenge the notion that the flipped model using self-study in an experiential setting can be a substitution for didactic delivery of pharmacy education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Flipped Classroom in Higher Education: Research and Practice)
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Open AccessArticle The Flipped Classroom as a Pedagogical Tool for Leadership Development in Postgraduate Medical Education
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 63; doi:10.3390/educsci7020063
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Following a needs assessment among residents, a 10-module leadership curriculum was developed that included health care law and medical errors. An educational intervention using the flipped classroom model (FCM) was developed and we investigated (1) its effectiveness as a teaching method, and (2)
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Following a needs assessment among residents, a 10-module leadership curriculum was developed that included health care law and medical errors. An educational intervention using the flipped classroom model (FCM) was developed and we investigated (1) its effectiveness as a teaching method, and (2) the degree of knowledge acquisition of the content of the module. Thirty-four residents were selected using convenience sampling and were divided into an intervention group (n = 10) and a control group (n = 24). The residents in the intervention group received reading materials and assignments in preparation for two reflective sessions. The control group only received reading material. Multiple-choice questionnaires were used to measure knowledge acquisition. Qualitative interviews were used to assess the perceived effectiveness of the FCM. Eight residents from the intervention group and 10 from the control group were used for final analysis. A significant improvement was observed in acquired knowledge of health care law and medical errors in the intervention group and the FCM was perceived to be effective in teaching health care law and medical errors. The FCM was perceived to facilitate residents’ knowledge acquisition and stimulate active learning. Interventions with FCM positively influence residents’ performance and should play more structural roles in postgraduate medical education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Flipped Classroom in Higher Education: Research and Practice)
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Open AccessArticle Digital Storytelling in a Flipped Classroom for Effective Learning
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 61; doi:10.3390/educsci7020061
Received: 29 January 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
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Abstract
Conclusive empirical evidence on whether virtual classrooms result in higher performance, satisfaction, or an improvement in problem solving skills when compared with traditional face-to-face lecturing does not exist. Various studies point in different directions. However, blended learning outperforms the traditional classroom in student
[...] Read more.
Conclusive empirical evidence on whether virtual classrooms result in higher performance, satisfaction, or an improvement in problem solving skills when compared with traditional face-to-face lecturing does not exist. Various studies point in different directions. However, blended learning outperforms the traditional classroom in student performance and satisfaction. A flipped classroom is one type of blended learning. For more than 20 years, this approach has been used at a European executive MBA (EMBA) program delivering online content combined with six residential weeks where students collaborate and reflect upon their online learning. Our research examined the overall setup of this program, and assessed one course in depth. As part of the course—International Management—an intercultural negotiation project was chosen to highlight the integration of online and offline activities. The flipped classroom is a demonstration of the reform-based teaching approach. The power of reform-based learning in executive education is the engaging combination of practice and theory, which improves the performance of executives. The participants considered the flipped approach exciting, dynamic, and insightful. The emphasis on a negotiation process involving classmates from around the world increased their global understanding. Beginning with a negotiation experience in the digital story project gave them a better appreciation of the relevant theories, techniques, and applications. Focusing on the practice of international negotiation and a cross-cultural analysis with reflection on cultural intelligence improved the competencies of the participants both during the course and after it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Flipped Classroom in Higher Education: Research and Practice)
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Other

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Open AccessFeature PaperDiscussion To Flip or Not to Flip: What Are the Questions?
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 71; doi:10.3390/educsci7030071
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
The flipped classroom has been receiving a lot of press lately as a more desirable way to manage the classroom and help students learn. However, flipping the classroom may not be appropriate for every course or every instructor. There may be a time
[...] Read more.
The flipped classroom has been receiving a lot of press lately as a more desirable way to manage the classroom and help students learn. However, flipping the classroom may not be appropriate for every course or every instructor. There may be a time when other active learning strategies are more appropriate to meet learning outcomes, student needs, and instructor capacity. This manuscript will discuss what flipping is and the decisions that an instructor might consider before flipping their classroom which might also enhance their implementation of this and other teaching strategies. A decision matrix is provided to illustrate this process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Flipped Classroom in Higher Education: Research and Practice)
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