Special Issue "Computational Methods in Wind Engineering"

A special issue of Computation (ISSN 2079-3197). This special issue belongs to the section "Computational Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Ali Cemal Benim

Center of Flow Simulation (CFS), Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Duesseldorf University of Applied Sciences, Muensterstr, D-40476 Duesseldorf, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mathematical modelling; numerical modelling; fluid mechanics; heat and mass transfer; combustion; thermohydraulic machinery; technical applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wind engineering is a truly interdisciplinary area encompassing many branches, such as meteorology, geographic information systems, fluid dynamics, structural dynamics, urban planning, energy and environment, as well as probability and statistics. Wind loads on structures (buildings, towers, bridges), pedestrian comfort, city ventilation, wind effects on ventilation in buildings and vehicles, pollution dispersion in urban areas, as well as wind energy harvesting, have been typical focal areas in wind engineering. Beyond this non-exhaustive list, issues related to climate change are gaining significance.

In wind engineering, in parallel to all other engineering disciplines, the impact of computational methods is rapidly increasing. As far as the computational aspects are concerned, wind engineering embodies a series of specific challenges including the availability of suitable validation data, definition of boundaries and boundary conditions, scale disparities, as well as fluid-structure interaction.

The present Special Issue aims to present the recent advances in the development and application of computational methods in wind engineering, in all related questions, according but not limited to those listed in the brief overview above. In addition to original research papers, review papers on the state-of-the-art and the future perspectives are invited.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Ali Cemal Benim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Computation is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • computational methods

  • wind engineering

  • computational fluid dynamics

  • computational structural dynamics

  • fluid-structure interaction

  • wind loads on structures

  • pedestrian comfort

  • city and building ventilation

  • urban pollutant dispersion

  • wind energy

Published Papers (7 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Aerodynamic Optimization of Airfoil Profiles for Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines
Computation 2018, 6(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation6020034
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
PDF Full-text (3915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study is the development of an automated two-dimensional airfoil shape optimization procedure for small horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT), with an emphasis on high thrust and aerodynamically stable performance. The procedure combines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis with
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is the development of an automated two-dimensional airfoil shape optimization procedure for small horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT), with an emphasis on high thrust and aerodynamically stable performance. The procedure combines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis with the Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the Biobjective Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (BiMADS) optimization algorithm and an automatic geometry and mesh generation tool. In CFD analysis, a Reynolds Averaged Numerical Simulation (RANS) is applied in combination with a two-equation turbulence model. For describing the system behaviour under alternating wind conditions, a number of CFD 2D-RANS-Simulations with varying Reynolds numbers and wind angles are performed. The number of cases is reduced by the use of RSM. In the analysis, an emphasis is placed upon the role of the blade-to-blade interaction. The average and the standard deviation of the thrust are optimized by a derivative-free optimization algorithm to define a Pareto optimal set, using the BiMADS algorithm. The results show that improvements in the performance can be achieved by modifications of the blade shape and the present procedure can be used as an effective tool for blade shape optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods in Wind Engineering)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Wind Pressure Distributions on Buildings Using the Coherent Structure Smagorinsky Model for LES
Computation 2018, 6(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation6020032
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
PDF Full-text (80160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A subgrid-scale model based on coherent structures, called the Coherent Structure Smagorinsky Model (CSM), has been applied to a large eddy simulation to assess its performance in the prediction of wind pressure distributions on buildings. The study cases were carried out for the
[...] Read more.
A subgrid-scale model based on coherent structures, called the Coherent Structure Smagorinsky Model (CSM), has been applied to a large eddy simulation to assess its performance in the prediction of wind pressure distributions on buildings. The study cases were carried out for the assessment of an isolated rectangular high-rise building and a building with a setback (both in a uniform flow) and an actual high-rise building in an urban city with turbulent boundary layer flow. For the isolated rectangular high-rise building in uniform flow, the CSM showed good agreement with both the traditional Smagorinsky Model (SM) and the experiments (values within 20%). For the building with a setback as well as the actual high-rise building in an urban city, both of which have a distinctive wind pressure distribution with large negative pressure caused by the complicated flow due to the strong influence of neighboring buildings, the CSM effectively gives more accurate results with less variation than the SM in comparison with the experimental results (within 20%). The CSM also yielded consistent peak pressure coefficients for all wind directions, within 20% of experimental values in a relatively high-pressure region of the case study of the actual high-rise building in an urban city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods in Wind Engineering)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle LES and Wind Tunnel Test of Flow around Two Tall Buildings in Staggered Arrangement
Computation 2018, 6(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation6020028
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
PDF Full-text (6657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wind flow structures and their consequent wind loads on two high-rise buildings in staggered arrangement are investigated by Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Synchronized pressure and flow field measurements by particle image velocimetry (PIV) are conducted in a boundary layer wind tunnel to validate
[...] Read more.
Wind flow structures and their consequent wind loads on two high-rise buildings in staggered arrangement are investigated by Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Synchronized pressure and flow field measurements by particle image velocimetry (PIV) are conducted in a boundary layer wind tunnel to validate the numerical simulations. The instantaneous and time-averaged flow fields are analyzed and discussed in detail. The coherent flow structures in the building gap are clearly observed and the upstream building wake is found to oscillate sideways and meander down to the downstream building in a coherent manner. The disruptive effect on the downstream building wake induced by the upstream building is also observed. Furthermore, the connection between the upstream building wake and the wind loads on the downstream building is explored by the simultaneous data of wind pressures and wind flow fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods in Wind Engineering)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Localized Meshless Technique for Generating 3-D Wind Fields
Computation 2018, 6(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation6010017
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
PDF Full-text (9990 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A localized meshless method is used to simulate 3-D atmospheric wind fields for wind energy assessment and emergency response. The meshless (or mesh-free) method with radial basis functions (RBFs) alleviates the need to create a mesh required by finite difference, finite volume, and
[...] Read more.
A localized meshless method is used to simulate 3-D atmospheric wind fields for wind energy assessment and emergency response. The meshless (or mesh-free) method with radial basis functions (RBFs) alleviates the need to create a mesh required by finite difference, finite volume, and finite element methods. The method produces a fast solution that converges with high accuracy, establishing 3-D wind estimates over complex terrain. The method does not require discretization of the domain or boundary and removes the need for domain integration. The meshless method converges exponentially for smooth boundary shapes and boundary data, and is insensitive to dimensional constraints. Coding of the method is very easy and can be done using MATLAB or MAPLE. By employing a localized RBF procedure, 3-D wind fields can be established from sparse meteorological data. The meshless method can be easily run on PCs and hand-held mobile devices. This article summarizes previous work where the meshless method has successfully simulated 3D wind fields over various environments, along with the equations used to obtain the simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods in Wind Engineering)
Figures

Figure 1a

Open AccessArticle Optimization of Airfoils Using the Adjoint Approach and the Influence of Adjoint Turbulent Viscosity
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
PDF Full-text (3774 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The adjoint approach in gradient-based optimization combined with computational fluid dynamics is commonly applied in various engineering fields. In this work, the gradients are used for the design of a two-dimensional airfoil shape, where the aim is a change in lift and drag
[...] Read more.
The adjoint approach in gradient-based optimization combined with computational fluid dynamics is commonly applied in various engineering fields. In this work, the gradients are used for the design of a two-dimensional airfoil shape, where the aim is a change in lift and drag coefficient, respectively, to a given target value. The optimizations use the unconstrained quasi-Newton method with an approximation of the Hessian. The flow field is computed with a finite-volume solver where the continuous adjoint approach is implemented. A common assumption in this approach is the use of the same turbulent viscosity in the adjoint diffusion term as for the primal flow field. The effect of this so-called “frozen turbulence” assumption is compared to the results using adjoints to the Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model. The comparison is done at a Reynolds number of R e = 2 × 10 6 for two different airfoils at different angles of attack. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods in Wind Engineering)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Temporal Variation of the Pressure from a Steady Impinging Jet Model of Dry Microburst-Like Wind Using URANS
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (2644 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study is to investigate the temporal behavior of the pressure field of a stationary dry microburst-like wind phenomenon utilizing Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) numerical simulations. Using an axisymmetric steady impinging jet model, the dry microburst-like wind is simulated from
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to investigate the temporal behavior of the pressure field of a stationary dry microburst-like wind phenomenon utilizing Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) numerical simulations. Using an axisymmetric steady impinging jet model, the dry microburst-like wind is simulated from the initial release of a steady downdraft flow, till the time after the primary vortices have fully convected out of the stagnation region. The validated URANS results presented herein shed light on the temporal variation of the pressure field which is in agreement with the qualitative description obtained from field measurements. The results have an impact on understanding the wind load on structures from the initial touch-down phase of the downdraft from a microburst. The investigation is based on CFD techniques, together with a simple impinging jet model that does not include any microphysical processes. Unlike previous investigations, this study focuses on the transient pressure field from a downdraft without obstacles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods in Wind Engineering)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview A Review of Numerical Modelling of Multi-Scale Wind Turbines and Their Environment
Computation 2018, 6(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation6010024
Received: 14 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
PDF Full-text (8965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Global demand for energy continues to increase rapidly, due to economic and population growth, especially for increasing market economies. These lead to challenges and worries about energy security that can increase as more users need more energy resources. Also, higher consumption of fossil
[...] Read more.
Global demand for energy continues to increase rapidly, due to economic and population growth, especially for increasing market economies. These lead to challenges and worries about energy security that can increase as more users need more energy resources. Also, higher consumption of fossil fuels leads to more greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming. Moreover, there are still more people without access to electricity. Several studies have reported that one of the rapidly developing source of power is wind energy and with declining costs due to technology and manufacturing advancements and concerns over energy security and environmental issues, the trend is predicted to continue. As a result, tools and methods to simulate and optimize wind energy technologies must also continue to advance. This paper reviews the most recently published works in Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of micro to small wind turbines, building integrated with wind turbines, and wind turbines installed in wind farms. In addition, the existing limitations and complications included with the wind energy system modelling were examined and issues that needs further work are highlighted. This study investigated the current development of CFD modelling of wind energy systems. Studies on aerodynamic interaction among the atmospheric boundary layer or wind farm terrain and the turbine rotor and their wakes were investigated. Furthermore, CFD combined with other tools such as blade element momentum were examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods in Wind Engineering)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top