Special Issue "Computational Methods in Wind Engineering"

A special issue of Computation (ISSN 2079-3197). This special issue belongs to the section "Computational Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2017

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Ali Cemal Benim

Center of Flow Simulation (CFS), Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Duesseldorf University of Applied Sciences, Muensterstr, D-40476 Duesseldorf, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mathematical modelling; numerical modelling; fluid mechanics; heat and mass transfer; technical applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wind engineering is a truly interdisciplinary area encompassing many branches, such as meteorology, geographic information systems, fluid dynamics, structural dynamics, urban planning, energy and environment, as well as probability and statistics. Wind loads on structures (buildings, towers, bridges), pedestrian comfort, city ventilation, wind effects on ventilation in buildings and vehicles, pollution dispersion in urban areas, as well as wind energy harvesting, have been typical focal areas in wind engineering. Beyond this non-exhaustive list, issues related to climate change are gaining significance.

In wind engineering, in parallel to all other engineering disciplines, the impact of computational methods is rapidly increasing. As far as the computational aspects are concerned, wind engineering embodies a series of specific challenges including the availability of suitable validation data, definition of boundaries and boundary conditions, scale disparities, as well as fluid-structure interaction.

The present Special Issue aims to present the recent advances in the development and application of computational methods in wind engineering, in all related questions, according but not limited to those listed in the brief overview above. In addition to original research papers, review papers on the state-of-the-art and the future perspectives are invited.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Ali Cemal Benim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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  • computational methods
  • wind engineering
  • computational fluid dynamics
  • computational structural dynamics
  • fluid-structure interaction
  • wind loads on structures
  • pedestrian comfort
  • city and building ventilation
  • urban pollutant dispersion
  • wind energy

Published Papers

This special issue is now open for submission, see below for planned papers.

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: LES analysis of flow around two tall buildings in tandem arrangement
Author: G. B. Zu 1 and K. M. Lam*2
Affiliation: 1 Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong
Abstract: Wind flow structures and their consequent wind loads on two high-rise buildings in tandem arrangement are investigated by Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Synchronized pressure and flow field measurements by particle image velocimetry (PIV) are conducted in a boundary layer wind tunnel to validate the numerical simulations. The instantaneous and time-averaged flow fields are analyzed and discussed in detail. The coherent flow structures in the building gap are clearly observed and the upstream building wake is found to oscillate sideways and meander down to the downstream building in a coherent manner. The disruptive effect on the downstream building wake induced by the upstream building is also observed. Furthermore, the connection between the upstream building wake and the wind loads on the downstream building is explored by considering wind pressures and wind flow field simultaneously.

Title: Computational analysis of the building integrated micro-energy harvesters
Author: Angelo Aquino, John Kaiser Calautit, Ben Richard Hughes, Katrina Calauti
Abstract: The advancement and applications of low-power energy harvesting technologies have become invaluable in modernized cities, a growth observed in parallel with the widespread use of low-energy devices within the urban sphere. Applications such as wireless sensors, data loggers and transmitters typically operate in the power range of micro- to milliwatts. The current research focuses on investigating the integration in buildings of an emerging micro-energy harvester, the Wind-Induced Flutter Energy Harvester (WIFEH) and the technology’s energy harnessing potential. The current study provides the experimental analysis of the WIFEH performance in a wind tunnel, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) aerodynamic analysis and an FEA flutter analysis of the oscillating flutter membrane of the harvester. The experimental analysis examined the device subjected to different wind tunnel velocities varying from 2.3 up to 10 m/s to assess the induced electromotive force (EMF) production. Under 2.3 m/s the microgenerator was able to produce a short-circuit current of 1 mA, peak-to-peak voltage of 8.72 V and root-mean-square (RMS) voltage of 3 V. With subsequent increase of wind tunnel air velocity to 5 m/s and membrane retensioning these values increased to 3.75 mA, 18.2 V and 4.88 V, respectively. The CFD simulation used a gable-roof type building model with a 27° pitch obtained from the literature. The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow was used for the simulation of the approach wind. The work investigates the effect of various wind speeds and WIFEH locations on the performance of the device giving insight on the potential for integration of the harvester into the built environment. The FEA flutter analysis features the eigenvector profiles, membrane displacement, and fluttering frequency for specific points of interest in the membrane.
Keywords: built environment; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); flutter; modelling; vibration

Title: Recent advancements in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling of wind energy systems: a review
Authors: John Kaiser Calautit, Angelo Aquino, Ben Richard Hughes, Katrina Calautit
Abstract: As the limited amount of fossil fuels continues to deplete at a faster rate and as the public become more aware and concerned about the damage to the environment, renewable sources such as wind power are becoming more important than ever. Wind power is one of the world’s fastest growing renewable energy source and with the declining costs due to technology and manufacturing advancements and concerns over energy security and environmental issues, the trend is predicted to continue. Therefore, tools and methods to predict and optimise the performance of wind energy technologies must also continue to advance. Computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are increasingly being employed to predict the performance of wind energy systems over the past few decades. Recent developments in wind turbine CFD modelling have shown a progression from modelling of flow around two-dimensional aerofoils to atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow through wind turbine arrangements or wind farms. This article reviews the recent advances of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling of wind energy systems. Recent advances in CFD techniques for modelling the rotor and the wake are discussed. Furthermore, the current complexities and limitations involved with the modelling of wind energy systems are examined and issues that requires further work are highlighted. Studies on the aerodynamic interaction between the ABL or wind farm terrain and the turbine rotor and their wakes are reviewed. Integration of CFD with other tools such as blade element momentum (BEM) is also assessed.

Title: Lift Optimization of Airfoils using the Adjoint Approach and the Influence of Adjoint Turbulent Viscosity
Author: Matthias Schramm 1,2,*, Bernhard Stoevesandt 2 and Joachim Peinke 1,2
Affiliation: 1. ForWind, University of Oldenburg, Ammerländer Heerstr. 114-118, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany
2. Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology, Küpkersweg 70, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany
Correspondence: ; Tel.: +49-441-798 5015
Abstract: The adjoint approach in gradient-based optimization combined with computational fluid dynamics is commonly applied in various engineering fields. In this work, the gradients are used for the design of a two-dimensional airfoil shape, where the aim is an increase of the lift coefficient to a given target value. The optimization is an unconstrained Quasi-Newton method with an approximation of the Hessian. The flow field is computed with a finite-volume solver where the continuous adjoint approach is implemented. A common assumption in this approach is to use the same turbulent viscosity in the adjoint diffusion term as in the primal flow field. The effect of this so-called “frozen turbulence” assumption is compared to the results using adjoints to the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The comparison is done at a Reynolds number of Re = 3 x 106 for two different airfoils at different angles of attack.
Keywords: airfoil optimization; gradient-based; adjoint approach; frozen turbulence; adjoint turbulence; OpenFOAM

Type: Article
Title: Temporal variation of the pressure from a steady impinging jet model of dry microburst-like wind using URANS
Authors: T. S. Sim 1, M. Skote 2,* and N. Srikanth 3
Affiliations: 1 School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798; tssim1@e.ntu.edu.sg
2 School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798
3 Energy Research Institute (ERI@N), 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 63714; nsrikanth@ntu.edu.sg
Correspondence: MSKOTE@ntu.edu.sg; Tel.: (+65)6790 4271
Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the temporal behavior of the pressure field of a stationary dry microburst-like wind phenomena utilizing Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) numerical simulations. Using an axisymmetric steady impinging jet model, the dry microburst-like wind is simulated from the initial release of a steady downdraft flow till the time after the primary vortices have fully convected out of the stagnation region. The validated URANS results presented herein shed light on the temporal variation of the pressure field which is well-matched with the qualitative description obtained from field measurements. The results have an impact on understanding the wind load on structures from the initial touch-down phase of the downdraft from a microburst. The investigation is based on CFD techniques together with a simple impinging jet model which does not include any microphysical processes.
Keywords: Microburst; Impinging jet; Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes; Pressure field

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