Special Issue "Prostate Cancer"

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A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sven Perner

Institute of Pathology, University Hospital of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127 Bonn, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +49 228 287 9080019
Interests: understanding of the molecular biology of prostate cancer and the development of predictive biomarkers; genetics; molecular biology; TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion; gene translocations; biomarker development

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The prevalence of prostate cancer (PCa), in western countries, is extremely high and tends to increases with age. Statistics have shown that 1 in 6 men will be diagnosed with PCa during their lifetime. This disease is the leading cause of male cancer-related death, second only to lung cancer. Notwithstanding the sizable number of deaths, the majority of cases have indolent or slow growing tumors. In PCa, strategies for clinical decision-making and diagnosis are based on clinical examination, PSA-levels and histopathologic evaluation. However, their inaccuracy in a significant subset of patients results in an overtreatment in many men. The understanding of the cancer biology of patients suffering from Pca is key for making progress on the treatment of these patients. We would like to invite manuscripts relating to novel biomarker discovery and validation in PCa. We are also particularly interested in manuscripts deciphering the molecular and biochemical development and progression of PCa, as well as epidemiologic aspects related to PCa. This issue on the whole will focus on understanding prostate cancer at a molecular, biochemical and genetic level.

Thanks you for your collaboration.

Sven Perner
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • postate cancer
  • biomarker development and validation
  • molecular biology
  • genetics
  • epidemiology
  • inflammation
  • cancer stem cells

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Risk of Prostate Cancer after Trans Urethral Resection of BPH: A Cohort and Nested Case-Control Study
Cancers 2011, 3(4), 4127-4138; doi:10.3390/cancers3044127
Received: 14 September 2011 / Revised: 24 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 8 November 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in both prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). This study evaluates the risk of PC after transurethral resection (TURP) for BPH and estimates the PCa risk related to presence of inflammation
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Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in both prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). This study evaluates the risk of PC after transurethral resection (TURP) for BPH and estimates the PCa risk related to presence of inflammation in the resected material. The Pathology Department at the University Hospital of Umeå (Umeå, Sweden) identified BPH cases (n = 7,901) that underwent TURP between 1982 and 1997. Using these pathological specimens, we compared the incidence of PCa in the cohort to the population and calculated the standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIR and SMR). Inflammation, the androgen receptor (AR), and p53 were evaluated in a nested case-control study of 201 cases and controls. Inflammation was graded severe or mild-moderate. In the follow-up period after TURP, cases developed prostate cancer and the controls did not. After TURP, SIR for prostate cancer increased [1.26, CI 95% (1.17–1.35)], whereas SMR decreased [0.59, CI 95% (0.47–0.73)]. Presence of inflammation at the time of TURP did not differ between cases and controls nor were there differences in p53 or AR staining. The data suggest a small increased risk of PCa after TURP and decreased PCa mortality. Inflammation at the time of TURP is not associated with PCa risk in this material. The increased PCa risk may be attributed to increased surveillance and PSA screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Forced Expression of ZNF143 Restrains Cancer Cell Growth
Cancers 2011, 3(4), 3909-3920; doi:10.3390/cancers3043909
Received: 9 August 2011 / Revised: 10 October 2011 / Accepted: 12 October 2011 / Published: 19 October 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We previously reported that the transcription factor Zinc Finger Protein 143 (ZNF143) regulates the expression of genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, and that downregulation of ZNF143 induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M. To assess the function of ZNF143 expression in
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We previously reported that the transcription factor Zinc Finger Protein 143 (ZNF143) regulates the expression of genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, and that downregulation of ZNF143 induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M. To assess the function of ZNF143 expression in the cell cycle, we established two cells with forced expression of ZNF143 derived from PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. These cell lines overexpress genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, such as polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), aurora kinase B (AURKB) and some minichromosome maintenance complex components (MCM). However, the doubling time of cells with forced expression of ZNF143 was approximately twice as long as its control counterpart cell line. Analysis following serum starvation and re-seeding showed that PC3 cells were synchronized at G1 in the cell cycle. Also, ZNF143 expression fluctuated, and was at its lowest level in G2/M. However, PC3 cells with forced expression of ZNF143 synchronized at G2/M, and showed lack of cell cycle-dependent fluctuation of nuclear expression of MCM proteins. Furthermore, G2/M population of both cisplatin-resistant PCDP6 cells over-expressing ZNF143 (derived from PC3 cells) and cells with forced expression of ZNF143 was significantly higher than that of each counterpart, and the doubling time of PCDP6 cells is about 2.5 times longer than that of PC3 cells. These data suggested that fluctuations in ZNF143 expression are required both for gene expression associated with cell cycle and for cell division. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)
Open AccessArticle The Expression of MTUS1/ATIP and Its Major Isoforms, ATIP1 and ATIP3, in Human Prostate Cancer
Cancers 2011, 3(4), 3824-3837; doi:10.3390/cancers3043824
Received: 5 August 2011 / Revised: 22 September 2011 / Accepted: 28 September 2011 / Published: 11 October 2011
PDF Full-text (1184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Angiotensin II (Ang II), the main effector of the renin angiotensin system, acts upon two distinct transmembrane receptors, the Ang II type 1 and the type 2 (AT2-) receptor, to induce promotion and inhibition of ERK2 phosphorylation. The AT2-receptor,
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Angiotensin II (Ang II), the main effector of the renin angiotensin system, acts upon two distinct transmembrane receptors, the Ang II type 1 and the type 2 (AT2-) receptor, to induce promotion and inhibition of ERK2 phosphorylation. The AT2-receptor, through an interaction with its putative signaling partner MTUS1/ATIP (AT2-receptor interacting protein), inhibits the mitogenic effects of EGF in prostate cancer cell lines representing both early and late stage disease. This is the first report on the expression of ATIP in normal and malignant human prostatic biopsies. The expression of ATIP and its major isoforms, ATIP1 and ATIP3, in normal prostatic cells and three prostate cancer cell lines was examined using QPCR and immunohistochemistry. Human biopsies containing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and well, moderately and poorly differentiated prostate cancer were also examined. Overall, ATIP1 and ATIP3 mRNA expression was increased in malignant compared to normal tissues and cell lines. ATIP immunostaining was low or absent in both the basal and columnar epithelial cell layers surrounding BPH acini; however, it was observed in high concentration in neoplastic epithelial cells of HGPIN and was clearly evident in cytoplasms of malignant cells in all prostate cancer grades. ATIP immunostaining was also identified in the cytoplasms of LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cells. As the AT2-receptor/ATIP inhibitory signaling pathway exists in malignant cells in all grades of prostate cancer, enhancement of this pathway may be a therapeutic target even after the development of androgen-independence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice
Cancers 2011, 3(4), 3762-3772; doi:10.3390/cancers3043762
Received: 25 July 2011 / Revised: 15 September 2011 / Accepted: 15 September 2011 / Published: 28 September 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, we determined the effects of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) on the growth and apoptosis of cultured human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We also determined the effects of dietary γ-TmT on the formation and growth of LNCaP tumors
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In the present study, we determined the effects of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) on the growth and apoptosis of cultured human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We also determined the effects of dietary γ-TmT on the formation and growth of LNCaP tumors in immunodeficient mice. In the in vitro study, we found that the activity of γ-TmT was stronger than α-tocopherol for inhibiting the growth and stimulating apoptosis in LNCaP cells. In the animal study, treatment of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with dietary γ-TmT inhibited the formation and growth of LNCaP xenograft tumors in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies showed that g-TmT administration inhibited proliferation as reflected by decreased mitosis and stimulated apoptosis as reflected by increased caspase-3 (active form) expression in LNCaP tumors. In addition, dietary administration of g-TmT increased the levels of a-, γ- and δ- tocopherol in plasma, and increased levels of γ- and δ- tocopherol were also observed in the prostate and in tumors. The present study demonstrated that g-TmT had strong anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential preventive effect of g-TmT for prostate cancer in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)
Open AccessArticle DNA Methylation and the HOXC6 Paradox in Prostate Cancer
Cancers 2011, 3(4), 3714-3725; doi:10.3390/cancers3043714
Received: 4 August 2011 / Revised: 8 September 2011 / Accepted: 22 September 2011 / Published: 27 September 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Overexpression of the classical homeobox transcription factor HOXC6 is frequent in prostate cancers and correlates with adverse clinical parameters. Since surprisingly many HOXC6 target genes are downregulated in prostate cancer, it has been posited that oncogenic effects of HOXC6 in prostate cancer may
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Overexpression of the classical homeobox transcription factor HOXC6 is frequent in prostate cancers and correlates with adverse clinical parameters. Since surprisingly many HOXC6 target genes are downregulated in prostate cancer, it has been posited that oncogenic effects of HOXC6 in prostate cancer may be unmasked by concurrent epigenetic downregulation of target genes exerting tumor suppressive effects. To test this hypothesis, we have studied the expression of three HOXC6 target genes, CNTN1 (encoding a cell adhesion protein), DKK3 and WIF1 (encoding WNT growth factor antagonists) as well as DNA methylation of DKK3 and WIF1. HOXC6 upregulation and association with poor prognosis were confirmed in our tissue series. The three target genes were each significantly downregulated in cancer tissues and expression of each one correlated inversely with that of HOXC6. Cases with lower WIF1 expression showed significantly earlier recurrence (p = 0.021), whereas no statistical significance was reached for CNTN1 and DKK3. Hypermethylation of DKK3 or WIF1 gene promoters was observed in a subset of cancers with downregulated expression, but was often weak. Our data support the hypothesis that HOXC6 target genes exerting tumor-suppressive effects are epigenetically downregulated in prostate cancer, but DNA methylation appears to follow or bolster rather than to cause their transcriptional inactivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Surgery and Chemotherapy on Metastatic Progression of Prostate Cancer: Evidence from the Natural History of the Disease Reconstructed through Mathematical Modeling
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3632-3660; doi:10.3390/cancers3033632
Received: 20 August 2011 / Revised: 9 September 2011 / Accepted: 15 September 2011 / Published: 20 September 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article brings mathematical modeling to bear on the reconstruction of the natural history of prostate cancer and assessment of the effects of treatment on metastatic progression. We present a comprehensive, entirely mechanistic mathematical model of cancer progression accounting for primary tumor latency,
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This article brings mathematical modeling to bear on the reconstruction of the natural history of prostate cancer and assessment of the effects of treatment on metastatic progression. We present a comprehensive, entirely mechanistic mathematical model of cancer progression accounting for primary tumor latency, shedding of metastases, their dormancy and growth at secondary sites. Parameters of the model were estimated from the following data collected from 12 prostate cancer patients: (1) age and volume of the primary tumor at presentation; and (2) volumes of detectable bone metastases surveyed at a later time. This allowed us to estimate, for each patient, the age at cancer onset and inception of the first metastasis, the expected metastasis latency time and the rates of growth of the primary tumor and metastases before and after the start of treatment. We found that for all patients: (1) inception of the first metastasis occurred when the primary tumor was undetectable; (2) inception of all or most of the surveyed metastases occurred before the start of treatment; (3) the rate of metastasis shedding is essentially constant in time regardless of the size of the primary tumor and so it is only marginally affected by treatment; and most importantly, (4) surgery, chemotherapy and possibly radiation bring about a dramatic increase (by dozens or hundred times for most patients) in the average rate of growth of metastases. Our analysis supports the notion of metastasis dormancy and the existence of prostate cancer stem cells. The model is applicable to all metastatic solid cancers, and our conclusions agree well with the results of a similar analysis based on a simpler model applied to a case of metastatic breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Type I Collagen Synthesis Marker Procollagen I N-Terminal Peptide (PINP) in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Intermittent Androgen Suppression
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3601-3609; doi:10.3390/cancers3033601
Received: 4 August 2011 / Accepted: 30 August 2011 / Published: 15 September 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) therapy for prostate cancer patients attempts to maintain the hormone dependence of the tumor cells by cycles alternating between androgen suppression (AS) and treatment cessation till a certain prostate-specific antigen (PSA) threshold is reached. Side effects are expected to
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Intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) therapy for prostate cancer patients attempts to maintain the hormone dependence of the tumor cells by cycles alternating between androgen suppression (AS) and treatment cessation till a certain prostate-specific antigen (PSA) threshold is reached. Side effects are expected to be reduced, compared to standard continuous androgen suppression (CAS) therapy. The present study examined the effect of IAS on bone metabolism by determinations of serum procollagen I N-terminal peptide (PINP), a biochemical marker of collagen synthesis. A total of 105 treatment cycles of 58 patients with prostate cancer stages ≥pT2 was studied assessing testosterone, PSA and PINP levels at monthly intervals. During phases of AS lasting for up to nine months PSA levels were reversibly reduced, indicating apoptotic regression of the prostatic tumors. Within the first cycle PINP increased at the end of the AS period and peaked in the treatment cessation phase. During the following two cycles a similar pattern was observed for PINP, except a break in collagen synthesis as indicated by low PINP levels in the first months off treatment. Therefore, measurements of the serum PINP concentration indicated increased bone matrix synthesis in response to >6 months of AS, which uninterruptedly continued into the first treatment cessation phase, with a break into each of the following two pauses. In summary, synthesis of bone matrix collagen increases while degradation decreases during off-treatment phases in patients undergoing IAS. Although a direct relationship between bone matrix turnover and risk of fractures is difficult to establish, IAS for treatment of biochemical progression of prostate tumors is expected to reduce osteoporosis in elderly men often at high risk for bone fractures representing a highly suitable patient population for this kind of therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Efficacy and Safety of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy of Single Implant with Two Fractions Combined with External Beam Radiotherapy for Hormone-Naïve Localized Prostate Cancer
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3585-3600; doi:10.3390/cancers3033585
Received: 9 August 2011 / Revised: 24 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 September 2011 / Published: 14 September 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (790 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy of a single implant with two fractions plus external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for hormone-naïve prostate cancer in comparison with radical prostatectomy. Of 150 patients with localized prostate
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy of a single implant with two fractions plus external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for hormone-naïve prostate cancer in comparison with radical prostatectomy. Of 150 patients with localized prostate cancer (T1c–T2c), 59 underwent HDR brachytherapy plus EBRT, and 91 received radical prostatectomy. The median follow-up of patients was 62 months for HDR brachytherapy plus EBRT, and 64 months for radical prostatectomy. In patient backgrounds between the two cohorts, the frequency of T2b plus T2c was greater in HDR brachytherapy cohort than in prostatectomy cohort (27% versus 12%, p = 0.029). Patients in HDR brachytherapy cohort first underwent 3D conformal RT with four beams to the prostate to an isocentric dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions and then, a total of 15–18 Gy in two fractions at least 5 hours apart. We prescribed 9 Gy/fraction for target (prostate gland plus 3 mm lateral outside margin and seminal vesicle) using CT image method for radiation planning. The total biochemical failure-free control rates (BF-FCR) at 3 and 5 years for the HDR brachytherapy cohort, and for the prostatectomy cohort were 92% and 85%, and 72% and 72%, respectively (significant difference, p = 0.0012). The 3-and 5-year BF-FCR in the HDR brachytherapy cohort and in the prostatectomy cohort by risk group was 100 and 100%, and 80 and 80%, respectively, for the low-risk group (p = 0.1418); 92 and 92%, 73 and 73%, respectively, for the intermediate-risk group (p = 0.0492); and 94 and 72%, 45 and 45%, respectively, for the high-risk group (p = 0.0073). After HDR brachytherapy plus EBRT, no patient experienced Grade 2 or greater genitourinay toxicity. The rate of late Grade 1 and 2 GI toxicity was 6% (n = 4). No patient experienced Grade 3 GI toxicity. HDR brachytherapy plus EBRT is useful for treating patients with hormone-naïve localized prostate cancer, and has low GU and GI toxicities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Distinct Redox Profiles of Selected Human Prostate Carcinoma Cell Lines: Implications for Rational Design of Redox Therapy
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3557-3584; doi:10.3390/cancers3033557
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 4 September 2011 / Accepted: 6 September 2011 / Published: 13 September 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of several cancer chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation are mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress. To better understand this process, we analyzed certain biochemical properties affecting reduction-oxidation (redox) balance in normal prostate epithelial cells and several prostate cancer cell lines.
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The effects of several cancer chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation are mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress. To better understand this process, we analyzed certain biochemical properties affecting reduction-oxidation (redox) balance in normal prostate epithelial cells and several prostate cancer cell lines. Highly aggressive androgen-independent prostate cancer PC3 cells demonstrated significantly higher levels of total antioxidant capacity (AC) and intra- and extracellular glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratios when compared with normal prostate epithelial PrEC cells. WPE1-NB26 cells, a prostate cancer cell line derived from immortalized RWPE1 human prostate epithelial cells, demonstrated significantly higher levels of total AC and intra- and extracellular GSH/GSSG ratios, but lower levels of intracellular reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and lipid peroxidation compared with RWPE1 cells. LNCaP-C4-2 cells, a more aggressive prostate cancer derived from less aggressive androgen-responsive LNCaP cells, exhibited higher levels of AC and extracellular GSH/GSSG ratio when compared to LNCaP cells. Specific cell types showed distinct cytotoxic responses to redox-modulating compounds. WPE1-NB26 cells were more sensitive to phenethyl isothiocyanate and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) than RWPE1 cells, while PC3 cells were more sensitive to TNF than PrEC cells. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that cancer cell redox state may modulate responses to redox-modulating therapeutic regimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Prevention of Prostate Cancer with Oleanane Synthetic Triterpenoid CDDO-Me in the TRAMP Mouse Model of Prostate Cancer
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3353-3369; doi:10.3390/cancers3033353
Received: 26 May 2011 / Revised: 12 August 2011 / Accepted: 15 August 2011 / Published: 19 August 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO), a synthetic analog of oleanolic acid, and its C28 methyl ester derivative (CDDO-Me), have shown potent antitumorigenic activity against a wide range of cancer cell lines, including prostate cancer cells in vitro, and inhibited the development of liver and
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2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO), a synthetic analog of oleanolic acid, and its C28 methyl ester derivative (CDDO-Me), have shown potent antitumorigenic activity against a wide range of cancer cell lines, including prostate cancer cells in vitro, and inhibited the development of liver and lung cancer in vivo. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of CDDO-Me in preventing the development and progression of prostate cancer in the transgenic adenocarinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. CDDO-Me inhibited the growth of murine TRAMPC-1 prostate cancer cells by inducing apoptosis through the inhibition of antiapoptotic p-Akt, p-mTOR and NF-κB. Early intervention with CDDO-Me (7.5 mg/kg) initiated at five weeks of age for 20 wk inhibited the progression of the preneoplastic lesions (low-grade PIN and high-grade-PIN) to adenocarcinoma in the dorsolateral prostate (DLP) and ventral prostate (VP) lobes of TRAMP mice. Even delayed administration of CDDO-Me started at 12 wk of age for 12 wk inhibited the development of adenocarcimona of the prostate. Both early and late treatment with CDDO-Me inhibited the metastasis of tumor to the distant organs. Treatment with CDDO-Me inhibited the expression of prosurvival p-Akt and NF-κB in the prostate and knocking-down Akt in TRAMPC-1 tumor cells sensitized them to CDDO-Me. These findings indicated that Akt is a target for apoptoxicity in TRAMPC-1 cells in vitro and potentially a target of CDDO-Me for inhibition of prostate cancer in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Metastasizing, Luciferase Transduced MAT‑Lu Rat Prostate Cancer Models: Follow up of Bolus and Metronomic Therapy with Doxorubicin as Model Drug
Cancers 2011, 3(2), 2679-2695; doi:10.3390/cancers3022679
Received: 4 May 2011 / Revised: 16 May 2011 / Accepted: 16 June 2011 / Published: 17 June 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (707 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The most fatal outcomes of prostate carcinoma (PCa) result from hormone-refractory variants of the tumor, especially from metastatic spread rather than from primary tumor burden. The goal of the study was to establish and apply rat MAT-Lu prostate cancer tumor models for improved
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The most fatal outcomes of prostate carcinoma (PCa) result from hormone-refractory variants of the tumor, especially from metastatic spread rather than from primary tumor burden. The goal of the study was to establish and apply rat MAT-Lu prostate cancer tumor models for improved non-invasive live follow up of tumor growth and metastasis by in vivo bioluminescence. We established luciferase transduced MAT-Lu rat PCa cells and studied tumor growth and metastatic processes in an ectopic as well as orthotopic setting. An intravenous bolus treatment with doxorubicin was used to demonstrate the basic applicability of in vivo imaging to follow up therapeutic intervention in these models. In vitro analysis of tissue homogenates confirmed major metastatic spread of subcutaneous tumors into the lung. Our sensitive method, however, for the first time detects metastasis also in lymph node (11/24), spleen (3/24), kidney (4/24), liver (5/24), and bone tissue (femur or spinal cord - 5/20 and 12/20, respectively). Preliminary data of orthotopic implantation (three animals) showed metastatic invasion to investigated organs in all animals but with varying preference (e.g., to lymph nodes). Intravenous bolus treatment of MAT-Lu PCa with doxorubicin reduced subcutaneous tumor growth by about 50% and the number of animals affected by metastatic lesions in lymph nodes (0/4), lung (3/6) or lumbar spine (0/2), as determined by in vivo imaging and in vitro analysis. Additionally, the possible applicability of the luciferase transduced MAT-Lu model(s) to study basic principles of metronomic therapies via jugular vein catheter, using newly established active microport pumping systems, is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology
Cancers 2011, 3(4), 3773-3798; doi:10.3390/cancers3043773
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 26 September 2011 / Accepted: 26 September 2011 / Published: 30 September 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk
[...] Read more.
Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)
Open AccessReview Natural Killer T Cells Subsets in Cancer, Functional Defects in Prostate Cancer and Implications for Immunotherapy
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3661-3675; doi:10.3390/cancers3033661
Received: 11 July 2011 / Revised: 1 September 2011 / Accepted: 13 September 2011 / Published: 20 September 2011
PDF Full-text (158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural killer T cells are T lymphocytes with unique activation and effector properties. The majority of NKT cells, termed type-I or iNKT cells, recognize lipid antigens presented on MHC-like CD1d molecules. Type-I NKT cells have the capacity to rapidly secrete various cytokines upon
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Natural killer T cells are T lymphocytes with unique activation and effector properties. The majority of NKT cells, termed type-I or iNKT cells, recognize lipid antigens presented on MHC-like CD1d molecules. Type-I NKT cells have the capacity to rapidly secrete various cytokines upon activation, thereby regulate immune responses exerts dominant anti-tumor and anti-microbial effector functions. Specific activation of type-I NKT cells in mouse models boosts immunity and prevents metastasis, which has led to a number of phase I-II clinical trials. Since the discovery of NKT cells other subsets with different specificities and effector functions have been described. This article briefly reviews the physiological functions of NKT cell subsets, their implications in cancer and the attempts that have been made to employ NKT cells for immune therapy of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)
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