Cancers 2011, 3(4), 3773-3798; doi:10.3390/cancers3043773
Review

Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

Received: 1 August 2011; in revised form: 26 September 2011 / Accepted: 26 September 2011 / Published: 30 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.
Keywords: biomarker; cancer detection; diagnosis; epigenetics; genetics; prostate cancer; treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Verma, M.; Patel, P.; Verma, M. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology. Cancers 2011, 3, 3773-3798.

AMA Style

Verma M, Patel P, Verma M. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology. Cancers. 2011; 3(4):3773-3798.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Verma, Mukesh; Patel, Payal; Verma, Mudit. 2011. "Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology." Cancers 3, no. 4: 3773-3798.

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