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Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology
Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institues of Health (NIH), 6130 Executive Blvd., Rockville, MD 20852, USA
Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Clinical Research Center, National Cancer Institute, National Institues of Health (NIH), 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2011; in revised form: 26 September 2011 / Accepted: 26 September 2011 / Published: 30 September 2011
Abstract: Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.
Keywords: biomarker; cancer detection; diagnosis; epigenetics; genetics; prostate cancer; treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style
Verma, M.; Patel, P.; Verma, M. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology. Cancers 2011, 3, 3773-3798.
Verma M, Patel P, Verma M. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology. Cancers. 2011; 3(4):3773-3798.
Verma, Mukesh; Patel, Payal; Verma, Mudit. 2011. "Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology." Cancers 3, no. 4: 3773-3798.