Cancers 2011, 3(4), 3762-3772; doi:10.3390/cancers3043762
Article

Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice

1 Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA 2 Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA 3 Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 July 2011; in revised form: 15 September 2011 / Accepted: 15 September 2011 / Published: 28 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)
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Abstract: In the present study, we determined the effects of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) on the growth and apoptosis of cultured human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We also determined the effects of dietary γ-TmT on the formation and growth of LNCaP tumors in immunodeficient mice. In the in vitro study, we found that the activity of γ-TmT was stronger than α-tocopherol for inhibiting the growth and stimulating apoptosis in LNCaP cells. In the animal study, treatment of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with dietary γ-TmT inhibited the formation and growth of LNCaP xenograft tumors in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies showed that g-TmT administration inhibited proliferation as reflected by decreased mitosis and stimulated apoptosis as reflected by increased caspase-3 (active form) expression in LNCaP tumors. In addition, dietary administration of g-TmT increased the levels of a-, γ- and δ- tocopherol in plasma, and increased levels of γ- and δ- tocopherol were also observed in the prostate and in tumors. The present study demonstrated that g-TmT had strong anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential preventive effect of g-TmT for prostate cancer in humans.
Keywords: prostate cancer; tocopherol; immunodeficient mice; xenograft tumor

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zheng, X.; Cui, X.-X.; Khor, T.O.; Huang, Y.; DiPaola, R.S.; Goodin, S.; Lee, M.-J.; Yang, C.S.; Kong, A.-N.; Conney, A.H. Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice. Cancers 2011, 3, 3762-3772.

AMA Style

Zheng X, Cui X-X, Khor TO, Huang Y, DiPaola RS, Goodin S, Lee M-J, Yang CS, Kong A-N, Conney AH. Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice. Cancers. 2011; 3(4):3762-3772.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zheng, Xi; Cui, Xiao-Xing; Khor, Tin Oo; Huang, Ying; DiPaola, Robert S; Goodin, Susan; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S; Kong, Ah-Ng; Conney, Allan H. 2011. "Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice." Cancers 3, no. 4: 3762-3772.

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