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Cancers 2011, 3(4), 3762-3772; doi:10.3390/cancers3043762
Article

Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice

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Received: 25 July 2011; in revised form: 15 September 2011 / Accepted: 15 September 2011 / Published: 28 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer)
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Abstract: In the present study, we determined the effects of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) on the growth and apoptosis of cultured human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We also determined the effects of dietary γ-TmT on the formation and growth of LNCaP tumors in immunodeficient mice. In the in vitro study, we found that the activity of γ-TmT was stronger than α-tocopherol for inhibiting the growth and stimulating apoptosis in LNCaP cells. In the animal study, treatment of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with dietary γ-TmT inhibited the formation and growth of LNCaP xenograft tumors in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies showed that g-TmT administration inhibited proliferation as reflected by decreased mitosis and stimulated apoptosis as reflected by increased caspase-3 (active form) expression in LNCaP tumors. In addition, dietary administration of g-TmT increased the levels of a-, γ- and δ- tocopherol in plasma, and increased levels of γ- and δ- tocopherol were also observed in the prostate and in tumors. The present study demonstrated that g-TmT had strong anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential preventive effect of g-TmT for prostate cancer in humans.
Keywords: prostate cancer; tocopherol; immunodeficient mice; xenograft tumor prostate cancer; tocopherol; immunodeficient mice; xenograft tumor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zheng, X.; Cui, X.-X.; Khor, T.O.; Huang, Y.; DiPaola, R.S.; Goodin, S.; Lee, M.-J.; Yang, C.S.; Kong, A.-N.; Conney, A.H. Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice. Cancers 2011, 3, 3762-3772.

AMA Style

Zheng X, Cui X-X, Khor TO, Huang Y, DiPaola RS, Goodin S, Lee M-J, Yang CS, Kong A-N, Conney AH. Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice. Cancers. 2011; 3(4):3762-3772.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zheng, Xi; Cui, Xiao-Xing; Khor, Tin Oo; Huang, Ying; DiPaola, Robert S; Goodin, Susan; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S; Kong, Ah-Ng; Conney, Allan H. 2011. "Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice." Cancers 3, no. 4: 3762-3772.



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