Special Issue "Small GTPases in Cancer"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Jonas Cicenas

CALIPHO Group, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, CMU - 1, rue Michel Servet, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +41 22 379 58 58
Interests: breast cancer; prostate cancer; acute myeloid leukemia (AML); kinases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Ras superfamily of GTPases comprises several subfamilies of small GTP-binding proteins whose functions have been implicated in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation, protein transport, cytoskeleton organization, etc. Ras proteins are key components of the signal transduction pathways triggered by a number of different extracellular signals, such as mitogens. KRAS and NRAS mutations have been implicated in quite a number of human cancers. Deregulation of many upstream molecules also triggers deregulation of the activity of Ras proteins, leading to the development of cancer. Rho GTPases are involved in multiple cellular processes that could also affect cancer progression, namely cytoskeletal organization, cell cycle progression, the regulation of transcription, and protein trafficking. Some Rho GTPases have been shown to have oncogenic activity and/or can promote cancer cell invasion. Con the other hand, as other subfamily members, appear to act as tumor suppressors and are deleted, mutated or deregulated in some cancers. Rab subfamily members are mostly involved in vesicular trafficking and it seems that deregulation of some of them is correlated with a worsened outcome in human cancers. In this Special Issue of Cancers, "Small GTPases in Cancer", experts are invited to contribute original research papers or review articles that will provide further insights on the various functions of small GTPases in cancers, their role in cancer biology, as well as a possibility to use them as drug targets and biomarkers.

Dr. Jonas Cicenas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • small GTPases
  • Ras family
  • Ras
  • Rab
  • Rho
  • KRAS mutations
  • NRAS mutations
  • cancer
  • biomarkers

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, BRCA1, and BRCA2 Mutations in Pancreatic Cancer
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is a disease that has a very high fatality rate and one of the highest mortality ratios among all major cancers, remaining the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developed countries. The major treatment of pancreatic cancer is surgery; however,
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Pancreatic cancer is a disease that has a very high fatality rate and one of the highest mortality ratios among all major cancers, remaining the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developed countries. The major treatment of pancreatic cancer is surgery; however, only 15–20% of patients are candidates for it at the diagnosis of disease. On the other hand, survival in patients, who undergo surgery, is less than 30%. In most cancers, genome stability is disturbed and pancreatic cancer is not the exception. Approximately 97% of pancreatic cancers have gene derangements, defined by point mutations, amplifications, deletions, translocations, and inversions. This review describes the most frequent genetic alterations found in pancreatic cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small GTPases in Cancer)
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Open AccessReview KRAS Mutant Pancreatic Cancer: No Lone Path to an Effective Treatment
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 18 April 2016
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1518 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the deadliest cancers with a dismal 7% 5-year survival rate and is projected to become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths by 2020. KRAS is mutated in 95% of PDACs and is a well-validated driver of
[...] Read more.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the deadliest cancers with a dismal 7% 5-year survival rate and is projected to become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths by 2020. KRAS is mutated in 95% of PDACs and is a well-validated driver of PDAC growth and maintenance. However, despite comprehensive efforts, an effective anti-RAS drug has yet to reach the clinic. Different paths to inhibiting RAS signaling are currently under investigation in the hope of finding a successful treatment. Recently, direct RAS binding molecules have been discovered, challenging the perception that RAS is an “undruggable” protein. Other strategies currently being pursued take an indirect approach, targeting proteins that facilitate RAS membrane association or downstream effector signaling. Unbiased genetic screens have identified synthetic lethal interactors of mutant RAS. Most recently, metabolic targets in pathways related to glycolytic signaling, glutamine utilization, autophagy, and macropinocytosis are also being explored. Harnessing the patient’s immune system to fight their cancer is an additional exciting route that is being considered. The “best” path to inhibiting KRAS has yet to be determined, with each having promise as well as potential pitfalls. We will summarize the state-of-the-art for each direction, focusing on efforts directed toward the development of therapeutics for pancreatic cancer patients with mutated KRAS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small GTPases in Cancer)
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Open AccessReview Mechanisms of Nuclear Export in Cancer and Resistance to Chemotherapy
Received: 30 January 2016 / Revised: 3 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1663 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tumour suppressor proteins, such as p53, BRCA1, and ABC, play key roles in preventing the development of a malignant phenotype, but those that function as transcriptional regulators need to enter the nucleus in order to function. The export of proteins between the nucleus
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Tumour suppressor proteins, such as p53, BRCA1, and ABC, play key roles in preventing the development of a malignant phenotype, but those that function as transcriptional regulators need to enter the nucleus in order to function. The export of proteins between the nucleus and cytoplasm is complex. It occurs through nuclear pores and exported proteins need a nuclear export signal (NES) to bind to nuclear exportin proteins, including CRM1 (Chromosomal Region Maintenance protein 1), and the energy for this process is provided by the RanGTP/RanGDP gradient. Due to the loss of DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints, drug resistance is a major problem in cancer treatment, and often an initially successful treatment will fail due to the development of resistance. An important mechanism underlying resistance is nuclear export, and a number of strategies that can prevent nuclear export may reverse resistance. Examples include inhibitors of CRM1, antibodies to the nuclear export signal, and alteration of nuclear pore structure. Each of these are considered in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small GTPases in Cancer)
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