Special Issue "Magnetic Biosensors"

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A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Richard Luxton (Website)

Institute of Bio-Sensing Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol, Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, BS16 1QY, UK
Interests: magneto-immunoassay; rapid diagnostics; point of care testing; environmental testing; interdisciplinary collaboration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the growing and diversifying technologies employed to monitor biological interactions, magnetic materials have unique properties that that can be exploited for the development of biosensors for rapid measurements at the point of test. Magnetic biosensors employ paramagnetic or super-paramagnetic particles, or crystals, as a method of detecting biological interactions by measuring changes in magnetic properties or magnetically induced effects such as changes in coil inductance, resistance or magneto-optical properties. The particles used in magnetic biosensors range in size from nanometres to microns in diameter and are coated in a bio-receptor such as an antibody or strand of nucleic acid. Interaction with the target causes physical properties of the particles to change; this might be associated with mobility or size. There are a number of technologies employed to detect the particles in a magnetic biosensor including coils, GMR devices, Hall Effect devices and various optical and imaging techniques. The main advantage unique to a magnetic biosensor is the ability to accelerate the binding interactions by manipulating the paramagnetic particles in a magnetic field, allowing the particles to be moved to a sensor surface where biological interactions take place allowing rapid detection of target.

This Special Issue will be dedicated to promoting the wide range of technologies and devices that employ magnetic detection of magneto-optical effects to detect and quantitate biological targets in a sample or targets in a biological sample. Applications areas include biomedical, diagnostics, environmental analysis, food safety and biosecurity.

Prof. Dr. Richard Luxton
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.


Keywords

  • paramagnetic
  • super-paramagnetic
  • magnetic-nanocrystals
  • magnetometer
  • GMR
  • hall effect
  • magneto-optical
  • immunobiosensor

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Scanning TMR Microscope for Biosensor Applications
Biosensors 2015, 5(2), 172-186; doi:10.3390/bios5020172
Received: 23 December 2014 / Revised: 13 March 2015 / Accepted: 27 March 2015 / Published: 2 April 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a novel tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) scanning microscopeset-up capable of quantitatively imaging the magnetic stray field patterns of micron-sizedelements in 3D. By incorporating an Anderson loop measurement circuit for impedancematching, we are able to detect magnetoresistance changes of as little as [...] Read more.
We present a novel tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) scanning microscopeset-up capable of quantitatively imaging the magnetic stray field patterns of micron-sizedelements in 3D. By incorporating an Anderson loop measurement circuit for impedancematching, we are able to detect magnetoresistance changes of as little as 0.006%/Oe. By 3Drastering a mounted TMR sensor over our magnetic barcodes, we are able to characterisethe complex domain structures by displaying the real component, the amplitude and thephase of the sensor’s impedance. The modular design, incorporating a TMR sensor withan optical microscope, renders this set-up a versatile platform for studying and imagingimmobilised magnetic carriers and barcodes currently employed in biosensor platforms,magnetotactic bacteria and other complex magnetic domain structures of micron-sizedentities. The quantitative nature of the instrument and its ability to produce vector maps ofmagnetic stray fields has the potential to provide significant advantages over other commonlyused scanning magnetometry techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen
Biosensors 2014, 4(3), 204-220; doi:10.3390/bios4030204
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 9 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 8 July 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (635 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. [...] Read more.
We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Magnetic Properties of FeNi-Based Thin Film Materials with Different Additives
Biosensors 2014, 4(3), 189-203; doi:10.3390/bios4030189
Received: 21 April 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 23 June 2014 / Published: 4 July 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1471 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a study of FeNi-based thin film materials deposited with Mo, Al and B using a co-sputtering process. The existence of soft magnetic properties in combination with strong magneto-mechanical coupling makes these materials attractive for sensor applications. Our findings show [...] Read more.
This paper presents a study of FeNi-based thin film materials deposited with Mo, Al and B using a co-sputtering process. The existence of soft magnetic properties in combination with strong magneto-mechanical coupling makes these materials attractive for sensor applications. Our findings show that FeNi deposited with Mo or Al yields magnetically soft materials and that depositing with B further increases the softness. The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of FeNi thin films is reduced by depositing with Al and completely removed by depositing with B. The effect of depositing with Mo is dependent on the Mo concentration. The coercivity of FeNiMo and FeNiAl is reduced to less than a half of that of FeNi, and a value as low as 40 A/m is obtained for FeNiB. The surfaces of the obtained FeNiMo, FeNiAl and FeNiB thin films reveal very different morphologies. The surface of FeNiMo shows nano-cracks, while the FeNiAl films show large clusters and fewer nano-cracks. When FeNi is deposited with B, a very smooth morphology is obtained. The crystal structure of FeNiMo strongly depends on the depositant concentration and changes into an amorphous structure at a higher Mo level. FeNiAl thin films remain polycrystalline, even at a very high concentration of Al, and FeNiB films are amorphous, even at a very low concentration of B. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Asynchronous Magnetic Bead Rotation (AMBR) Microviscometer for Label-Free DNA Analysis
Biosensors 2014, 4(1), 76-89; doi:10.3390/bios4010076
Received: 17 January 2014 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have developed a label-free viscosity-based DNA detection system, using paramagnetic beads as an asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR) microviscometer. We have demonstrated experimentally that the bead rotation period is linearly proportional to the viscosity of a DNA solution surrounding the paramagnetic [...] Read more.
We have developed a label-free viscosity-based DNA detection system, using paramagnetic beads as an asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR) microviscometer. We have demonstrated experimentally that the bead rotation period is linearly proportional to the viscosity of a DNA solution surrounding the paramagnetic bead, as expected theoretically. Simple optical measurement of asynchronous microbead motion determines solution viscosity precisely in microscale volumes, thus allowing an estimate of DNA concentration or average fragment length. The response of the AMBR microviscometer yields reproducible measurement of DNA solutions, enzymatic digestion reactions, and PCR systems at template concentrations across a 5000-fold range. The results demonstrate the feasibility of viscosity-based DNA detection using AMBR in microscale aqueous volumes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Biosensors)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Sensing Magnetic Directions in Birds: Radical Pair Processes Involving Cryptochrome
Biosensors 2014, 4(3), 221-242; doi:10.3390/bios4030221
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 14 July 2014 / Accepted: 18 July 2014 / Published: 24 July 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (824 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Birds can use the geomagnetic field for compass orientation. Behavioral experiments, mostly with migrating passerines, revealed three characteristics of the avian magnetic compass: (1) it works spontaneously only in a narrow functional window around the intensity of the ambient magnetic field, but [...] Read more.
Birds can use the geomagnetic field for compass orientation. Behavioral experiments, mostly with migrating passerines, revealed three characteristics of the avian magnetic compass: (1) it works spontaneously only in a narrow functional window around the intensity of the ambient magnetic field, but can adapt to other intensities, (2) it is an “inclination compass”, not based on the polarity of the magnetic field, but the axial course of the field lines, and (3) it requires short-wavelength light from UV to 565 nm Green. The Radical Pair-Model of magnetoreception can explain these properties by proposing spin-chemical processes in photopigments as underlying mechanism. Applying radio frequency fields, a diagnostic tool for radical pair processes, supports an involvement of a radical pair mechanism in avian magnetoreception: added to the geomagnetic field, they disrupted orientation, presumably by interfering with the receptive processes. Cryptochromes have been suggested as receptor molecules. Cry1a is found in the eyes of birds, where it is located at the membranes of the disks in the outer segments of the UV-cones in chickens and robins. Immuno-histochemical studies show that it is activated by the wavelengths of light that allow magnetic compass orientation in birds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Biosensors)
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