Special Issue "Learning and Memory Deficits Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders"

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A special issue of Behavioral Sciences (ISSN 2076-328X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Scott J. Hunter (Website)

Departments of Psychiatry, Behavioral Neuroscience and Pediatrics, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC 3077, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
Phone: +1 773 702 2227
Fax: +1 773 702 9929
Interests: pediatric neuropsychology; developmental neuroscience; neurodevelopmental disorders (neurogenetic and acquired developmental disorders, i.e., autism, neurofibromatosis, down syndrome); epilepsies; attention; executive functions; intervention

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The capacity to learn is dependent on a set of neurally directed capabilities, including orientation, attention, sensory intake and processing, and ultimately memory, within the short-term (e.g., working memory, encoding, short-term memory) and across time (e.g., extended encoding, consolidation, retrieval, long-term memory). Within the neuropsychiatric disorders, processes that underlie learning and memory are frequently disrupted, contributing to a range of deficits that can impact social engagement, emotional and behavioral regulation, educational and vocational opportunity, and adaptation. Research to date has highlighted such disruptions, and the alterations that underlie them neurobiologically, as a primary target for understanding the broad range of impairments seen in neuropsychiatric conditions and for guiding efforts at intervention, both pharmacologically and rehabilitatively. The goal with this special issue is to review and extend our current state of the knowledge concerning learning and memory dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorder and to inform ongoing research in intervention and remediation.

Dr. Scott J. Hunter
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Behavioral Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • working memory
  • encoding
  • retrieval
  • consolidation
  • hippocampus
  • emotion
  • epilpesy
  • schizophrenia
  • autism

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Cognitive Predictors of Verbal Memory in a Mixed Clinical Pediatric Sample
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(3), 522-535; doi:10.3390/bs3030522
Received: 22 July 2013 / Revised: 13 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 26 August 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Verbal memory problems, along with other cognitive difficulties, are common in children diagnosed with neurological and/or psychological disorders. Historically, these “memory problems” have been poorly characterized and often present with a heterogeneous pattern of performance across memory processes, even within a specific [...] Read more.
Verbal memory problems, along with other cognitive difficulties, are common in children diagnosed with neurological and/or psychological disorders. Historically, these “memory problems” have been poorly characterized and often present with a heterogeneous pattern of performance across memory processes, even within a specific diagnostic group. The current study examined archival neuropsychological data from a large mixed clinical pediatric sample in order to understand whether functioning in other cognitive areas (i.e., verbal knowledge, attention, working memory, executive functioning) may explain some of the performance variability seen across verbal memory tasks of the Children’s Memory Scale (CMS). Multivariate analyses revealed that among the cognitive functions examined, only verbal knowledge explained a significant amount of variance in overall verbal memory performance. Further univariate analyses examining the component processes of verbal memory indicated that verbal knowledge is specifically related to encoding, but not the retention or retrieval stages. Future research is needed to replicate these findings in other clinical samples, to examine whether verbal knowledge predicts performance on other verbal memory tasks and to explore whether these findings also hold true for visual memory tasks. Successful replication of the current study findings would indicate that interventions targeting verbal encoding deficits should include efforts to improve verbal knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Memory Deficits Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders)
Open AccessArticle Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(3), 348-371; doi:10.3390/bs3030348
Received: 11 May 2013 / Revised: 26 June 2013 / Accepted: 26 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC). Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance [...] Read more.
Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC). Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI) between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Memory Deficits Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders)
Open AccessArticle Discrimination within Recognition Memory in Schizophrenia
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(2), 273-297; doi:10.3390/bs3020273
Received: 19 March 2013 / Revised: 21 May 2013 / Accepted: 30 May 2013 / Published: 7 June 2013
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Abstract
Episodic memory is one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. First-degree biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia also have been found to exhibit a similar, but milder, episodic memory deficit. Unlike most studies that focus on the percent of previously [...] Read more.
Episodic memory is one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. First-degree biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia also have been found to exhibit a similar, but milder, episodic memory deficit. Unlike most studies that focus on the percent of previously presented items recognized, the current investigation sought to further elucidate the nature of memory dysfunction associated with schizophrenia by examining the discrimination of old and new material during recognition (measured by d') to consider false recognition of new items. Using the Recurring Figures Test and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), we studied a sample of schizophrenia probands and the first-degree biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia, as well as probands with bipolar disorder and first-degree biological relatives to assess the specificity of recognition memory dysfunction to schizophrenia. The schizophrenia sample had poorer recognition discrimination in both nonverbal and verbal modalities; no such deficits were identified in first-degree biological relatives or bipolar disorder probands. Discrimination in schizophrenia and bipolar probands failed to benefit from the geometric structure in the designs in the manner that controls did on the nonverbal test. Females performed better than males in recognition of geometric designs. Episodic memory dysfunction in schizophrenia is present for a variety of stimulus domains and reflects poor use of item content to increase discrimination of old and new items. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Memory Deficits Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders)
Open AccessArticle Facilitation of Relational Learning in Schizophrenia
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(2), 206-216; doi:10.3390/bs3020206
Received: 15 February 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 26 March 2013 / Published: 12 April 2013
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Abstract
Abnormal hippocampal function likely contributes to relational learning deficits observed in schizophrenia. It is unknown whether these deficits can be attenuated with a training intervention. The purpose of this project was to determine if training could facilitate relational learning of the transverse [...] Read more.
Abnormal hippocampal function likely contributes to relational learning deficits observed in schizophrenia. It is unknown whether these deficits can be attenuated with a training intervention. The purpose of this project was to determine if training could facilitate relational learning of the transverse patterning task in schizophrenia. Healthy and schizophrenia subjects completed a version of transverse patterning that incorporated training. The majority of subjects with schizophrenia successfully learned transverse patterning when provided with training. A subgroup (approximately 25%) of schizophrenia subjects showed no tendency to learn with training. These results were replicated in a second study with a separate cohort and different stimuli. This study illustrates that relational learning of the transverse patterning can be facilitated in schizophrenia with training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Memory Deficits Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders)
Open AccessArticle Distinct Episodic Verbal Memory Profiles in Schizophrenia
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(2), 192-205; doi:10.3390/bs3020192
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 25 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (93 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
According to some authors, episodic memory impairment may be a feature shared by all schizophrenic patients, whereas others argue in favor of the mnesic heterogeneity. Our aims were to determine whether patients can be grouped based on according to their mnesic performances. [...] Read more.
According to some authors, episodic memory impairment may be a feature shared by all schizophrenic patients, whereas others argue in favor of the mnesic heterogeneity. Our aims were to determine whether patients can be grouped based on according to their mnesic performances. The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), an episodic verbal learning test, was compared in 61 schizophrenic patients and 61 matched healthy subjects. The 32 indices were calculated using CVLT Scoring Software. This process allowed us to describe patients’ episodic processes in detail (encoding, storage, retrieval). We isolated one group with normative data, another showed impairment of both encoding and retrieval processes, and in the last one, only encoding process was impaired. As schizophrenia is heterogeneous with regard to episodic memory, impairments should not be considered as a common core to the various forms of the illness and it would be fruitful to systematically assess episodic processes in detail to take into account individual abilities and challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Memory Deficits Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders)
Open AccessArticle Working Memory, Language Skills, and Autism Symptomatology
Behav. Sci. 2012, 2(4), 207-218; doi:10.3390/bs2040207
Received: 10 August 2012 / Revised: 23 September 2012 / Accepted: 12 October 2012 / Published: 2 November 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While many studies have reported working memory (WM) impairments in autism spectrum disorders, others do not. Sample characteristics, WM domain, and task complexity likely contribute to these discrepancies. Although deficits in visuospatial WM have been more consistently documented, there is much controversy [...] Read more.
While many studies have reported working memory (WM) impairments in autism spectrum disorders, others do not. Sample characteristics, WM domain, and task complexity likely contribute to these discrepancies. Although deficits in visuospatial WM have been more consistently documented, there is much controversy regarding verbal WM in autism. The goal of the current study was to explore visuospatial and verbal WM in a well-controlled sample of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and typical development. Individuals ages 9–17 with HFA (n = 18) and typical development (n = 18), were carefully matched on gender, age, IQ, and language, and were administered a series of standardized visuospatial and verbal WM tasks. The HFA group displayed significant impairment across WM domains. No differences in performance were noted across WM tasks for either the HFA or typically developing groups. Over and above nonverbal cognition, WM abilities accounted for significant variance in language skills and symptom severity. The current study suggests broad WM limitations in HFA. We further suggest that deficits in verbal WM are observed in more complex tasks, as well as in simpler tasks, such as phonological WM. Increased task complexity and linguistic demands may influence WM abilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Memory Deficits Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders)

Review

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Open AccessReview Memory Deficits in Schizophrenia: A Selective Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Studies
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(3), 330-347; doi:10.3390/bs3030330
Received: 9 May 2013 / Revised: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 20 June 2013 / Published: 27 June 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Schizophrenia is a complex chronic mental illness that is characterized by positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Cognitive deficits are most predictive of long-term outcomes, with abnormalities in memory being the most robust finding. The advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has [...] Read more.
Schizophrenia is a complex chronic mental illness that is characterized by positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Cognitive deficits are most predictive of long-term outcomes, with abnormalities in memory being the most robust finding. The advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed exploring neural correlates of memory deficits in vivo. In this article, we will give a selective review of fMRI studies probing brain regions and functional networks that are thought to be related to abnormal memory performance in two memory systems prominently affected in schizophrenia; working memory and episodic memory. We revisit the classic “hypofrontality” hypothesis of working memory deficits and explore evidence for frontotemporal dysconnectivity underlying episodic memory abnormalities. We conclude that fMRI studies of memory deficits in schizophrenia are far from universal. However, the current literature does suggest that alterations are not isolated to a few brain regions, but are characterized by abnormalities within large-scale brain networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Memory Deficits Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders)
Open AccessReview Hippocampal Physiology, Structure and Function and the Neuroscience of Schizophrenia: A Unified Account of Declarative Memory Deficits, Working Memory Deficits and Schizophrenic Symptoms
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(2), 298-315; doi:10.3390/bs3020298
Received: 25 April 2013 / Revised: 30 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular [...] Read more.
Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular physiology and connectivity of the hippocampus with other regions can also aid in understanding the relationship between schizophrenic declarative or relational memory deficits, working memory deficits and the clinical symptoms of the syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Memory Deficits Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders)

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