Special Issue "Lithium Ion Batteries"

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Maciej Swierczynski

Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg Ø, Denmark
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: energy storage; batteries; battery characterization techniques; battery testing; modeling; lifetime testing; lifetime prediction; state estimation; EV; renewable and residential battery applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the exponential growth in portable electronics has driven the demand for compact, rechargeable lithium ion batteries offering high energy density. The future challenges, e.g., decarbonisation of the CO2 intensive transportation sector, will entail the need for high energy, and high power density batteries will continue to see growth. Moreover, lithium ion batteries are gaining importance for other applications, e.g., stationary applications.

The cost of lithium ion batteries has halved in the last few years and lithium ion batteries are expected to dominate the battery market in the following years. However, despite progress, there is still a need for improvements in lithium ion batteries’ performance. Further improvements are required not only in the field of electrochemistry but also in developing better manufacturing methods, diagnostic algorithms, lifetime prediction methods, battery management systems and addressing safety concerns. Therefore, this Special Issue is focused on the recent progress and developments in lithium ion batteries.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Electrical, thermal and electrochemical testing and modeling;
  • Lifetime testing ageing mechanisms and lifetime prediction;
  • Diagnosis and prognostic methods;
  • Materials and advanced manufacturing methods;
  • Battery cell and pack design;
  • Emerging technologies and applications of lithium ion batteries;
  • Life cycle assessment;
  • Safety concerns;
  • Sizing and thermal management methods;
  • Battery management systems.

Assoc. Prof. Maciej Swierczynski
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Batteries is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • testing
  • modeling
  • lifetime
  • diagnostics
  • materials
  • design
  • emerging technologies
  • applications
  • safety
  • battery management system

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of Online Open Circuit Voltage Estimation Techniques for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 6 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2688 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Online estimation techniques are extensively used to determine the parameters of various uncertain dynamic systems. In this paper, online estimation of the open-circuit voltage (OCV) of lithium-ion batteries is proposed by two different adaptive filtering methods (i.e., recursive least square, RLS, and least
[...] Read more.
Online estimation techniques are extensively used to determine the parameters of various uncertain dynamic systems. In this paper, online estimation of the open-circuit voltage (OCV) of lithium-ion batteries is proposed by two different adaptive filtering methods (i.e., recursive least square, RLS, and least mean square, LMS), along with an adaptive observer. The proposed techniques use the battery’s terminal voltage and current to estimate the OCV, which is correlated to the state of charge (SOC). Experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed methods in online estimation at different charge/discharge conditions and temperatures. The comparative study illustrates the advantages and limitations of each online estimation method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Doping LiMnPO4 with Cobalt and Nickel: A First Principle Study
Received: 8 February 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
PDF Full-text (1040 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A density functional theory (DFT) study has been carried out on transition metal phosphates with olivine structure and formula LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni) to assess their potential as cathode materials in rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on their chemical and structural
[...] Read more.
A density functional theory (DFT) study has been carried out on transition metal phosphates with olivine structure and formula LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni) to assess their potential as cathode materials in rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on their chemical and structural stability and high theoretical capacity. The investigation focuses on LiMnPO4, which could offer an improved cell potential (4.1 V) with respect to the reference LiFePO4 compound, but it is characterized by poor lithium intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics. Substitution of cations like Co and Ni in the olivine structure of LiMnPO4 was recently reported in an attempt to improve the electrochemical performances. Here the electronic structure and lithium intercalation potential of Ni- and Co-doped LiMnPO4 were calculated in the framework of the Hubbard U density functional theory (DFT+U) method for highly correlated materials. Moreover, the diffusion process of lithium in the host structures was simulated, and the activation barriers in the doped and pristine structures were compared. Our calculation predicted that doping increases Li insertion potential while activation barriers for Li diffusion remain similar to the pristine material. Moreover, Ni and Co doping induces the formation of impurity states near the Fermi level and significantly reduces the band gap of LiMnPO4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Second-Life Batteries on a Gas Turbine Power Plant to Provide Area Regulation Services
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Batteries are used in the electricity grid to provide ancillary services. Area regulation seems to provide substantial revenues and profit, but Li-ion batteries are still too expensive to enter widely into this market. On the other hand, electric vehicle (EV) batteries are considered
[...] Read more.
Batteries are used in the electricity grid to provide ancillary services. Area regulation seems to provide substantial revenues and profit, but Li-ion batteries are still too expensive to enter widely into this market. On the other hand, electric vehicle (EV) batteries are considered inappropriate for traction purposes when they reach a state of health (SoH) of 80%. The reuse of these batteries offers affordable batteries for second-life stationary applications. This study analyzes two possible scenarios where batteries may give power and energy support to a gas turbine cogeneration power plant, and how long these batteries may last under different loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Study on Factors for Accurate Open Circuit Voltage Characterizations in Mn-Type Li-Ion Batteries
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 12 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Open circuit voltage (OCV) of lithium batteries has been of interest since the battery management system (BMS) requires an accurate knowledge of the voltage characteristics of any Li-ion batteries. This article presents an OCV characteristic for lithium manganese oxide (LMO) batteries
[...] Read more.
Open circuit voltage (OCV) of lithium batteries has been of interest since the battery management system (BMS) requires an accurate knowledge of the voltage characteristics of any Li-ion batteries. This article presents an OCV characteristic for lithium manganese oxide (LMO) batteries under several experimental operating conditions, and discusses factors for accurate OCV determination. A test system is developed for OCV characterization based on the OCV pulse test method. Various factors for the OCV behavior, such as resting period, step-size of the pulse test, testing current amplitude, hysteresis phenomena, and terminal voltage relationship, are investigated and evaluated. To this end, a general OCV model based on state of charge (SOC) tracking is developed and validated with satisfactory results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Generalized Characterization Methodology for Performance Modelling of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (7177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are complex energy storage devices with their performance behavior highly dependent on the operating conditions (i.e., temperature, load current, and state-of-charge (SOC)). Thus, in order to evaluate their techno-economic viability for a certain application, detailed information about Li-ion
[...] Read more.
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are complex energy storage devices with their performance behavior highly dependent on the operating conditions (i.e., temperature, load current, and state-of-charge (SOC)). Thus, in order to evaluate their techno-economic viability for a certain application, detailed information about Li-ion battery performance behavior becomes necessary. This paper proposes a comprehensive seven-step methodology for laboratory characterization of Li-ion batteries, in which the battery’s performance parameters (i.e., capacity, open-circuit voltage (OCV), and impedance) are determined and their dependence on the operating conditions are obtained. Furthermore, this paper proposes a novel hybrid procedure for parameterizing the batteries’ equivalent electrical circuit (EEC), which is used to emulate the batteries’ dynamic behavior. Based on this novel parameterization procedure, the performance model of the studied Li-ion battery is developed and its accuracy is successfully verified (maximum error lower than 5% and a mean error below 8.5 mV) for various load profiles (including a real application profile), thus validating the proposed seven-step characterization methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Porosity on the Thick Electrodes for High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries for Stationary Applications
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of 250–350 μm-thick single-sided lithium ion cell graphite anodes and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) cathodes with constant area weight, but varying porosity were prepared. Over this wide thickness range, micron-sized carbon fibers were used to stabilize the electrode
[...] Read more.
A series of 250–350 μ m-thick single-sided lithium ion cell graphite anodes and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) cathodes with constant area weight, but varying porosity were prepared. Over this wide thickness range, micron-sized carbon fibers were used to stabilize the electrode structure and to improve electrode kinetics. By choosing the proper porosities for the anode and cathode, kinetic limitations and aging losses during cell cycling could be minimized and energy density improved. The cell (C38%-A48%) exhibits the highest energy density, 441 Wh/L at the C/10 rate, upon cycling at elevated temperature and different C-rates. The cell (C38%-A48%) showed 9% higher gravimetric energy density at C/10 in comparison to the cell with as-coated electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Durability and Reliability of Electric Vehicle Batteries under Electric Utility Grid Operations. Part 1: Cell-to-Cell Variations and Preliminary Testing
Received: 24 May 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and grid-to-vehicle (G2V) strategies are considered to help stabilize the electric grid but their true impact on battery degradation is still unknown. The intention of this study is to test the impact of such strategies on the degradation of commercial Li-ion
[...] Read more.
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and grid-to-vehicle (G2V) strategies are considered to help stabilize the electric grid but their true impact on battery degradation is still unknown. The intention of this study is to test the impact of such strategies on the degradation of commercial Li-ion batteries. This first part looks into the preliminary testing performed prior to the start of degradation studies to ensure that the selected cells are compatible. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic cell-to-cell variation within the selected batch and the diagnostic-ability of the cells were investigated. The cells were found to have low cell-to-cell variations and are thus consistent. Moreover, the emulation of the full cell from the half-cell data prepared from harvested electrodes was successful and the degradation forecast showed that the main degradation modes can be differentiated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle The Carbon Additive Effect on Electrochemical Performance of LiFe0.5Mn0.5PO4/C Composites by a Simple Solid-State Method for Lithium Ion Batteries
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 25 May 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4044 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work reported a solid-state method to prepare LiFe0.5Mn0.5PO4/C (LFMP/C) composite cathode materials by using LiH2PO4, MnO2, Fe2O3, citric acid (C6H8O7),
[...] Read more.
This work reported a solid-state method to prepare LiFe0.5Mn0.5PO4/C (LFMP/C) composite cathode materials by using LiH2PO4, MnO2, Fe2O3, citric acid (C6H8O7), and sucrose (C12H22O11). The citric acid was used as a complex agent and C12H22O11 was used as a carbon source. Two novel hollow carbon sphere (HCS) and nanoporous graphene (NP-GNS) additives were added into the LFMP/C composite to enhance electrochemical performance. The HCS and NP-GNS were prepared via a simple hydrothermal process. The characteristic properties of the composite cathode materials were examined by micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis (EA), and alternating current (AC) impedance methods. The coin cell was used to investigate the electrochemical performance at various rates. It was found that the specific discharge capacities of LFMP/C + 2% NP-GNS + 2% HCS composite cathode materials were 161.18, 154.71, 148.82, and 120.00 mAh·g−1 at 0.1C, 0.2C, 1C, and 10C rates, respectively. Moreover, they all showed the coulombic efficiency ca. 97%–98%. The advantage of the one-pot solid-state method can be easily scaled up for mass-production, as compared with the sol-gel method or hydrothermal method. Apparently, the LFMP/C composite with HCS and NP-GNS conductors can be a good candidate for high-power Li-ion battery applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessCommunication Calculation of Constant Power Lithium Battery Discharge Curves
Received: 22 February 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 11 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Standard battery testing procedure consists of discharging the battery at constant current. However, for battery powered aircraft application, consideration of the cruise portion of the flight envelope suggests that power should be kept constant, implying that battery characterization should occur over a constant
[...] Read more.
Standard battery testing procedure consists of discharging the battery at constant current. However, for battery powered aircraft application, consideration of the cruise portion of the flight envelope suggests that power should be kept constant, implying that battery characterization should occur over a constant power discharge. Consequently, to take advantage of existing battery discharge curves it would be useful to have a methodology that can extract a constant power discharge curve from a constant current discharge curve. The development of such a methodology for lithium batteries is described in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Economics of Residential Photovoltaic Battery Systems in Germany: The Case of Tesla’s Powerwall
Received: 8 February 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 26 April 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1114 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Residential photovoltaic (PV) battery systems increase households’ electricity self-consumption using rooftop PV systems and thus reduce the electricity bill. High investment costs of battery systems, however, prevent positive financial returns for most present residential battery installations in Germany. Tesla Motors, Inc. (Palo Alto,
[...] Read more.
Residential photovoltaic (PV) battery systems increase households’ electricity self-consumption using rooftop PV systems and thus reduce the electricity bill. High investment costs of battery systems, however, prevent positive financial returns for most present residential battery installations in Germany. Tesla Motors, Inc. (Palo Alto, CA, USA) announced a novel battery system—the Powerwall—for only about 25% of the current German average market price. According to Tesla’s CEO Elon Musk, Germany is one of the key markets for their product. He has, however, not given numbers to support his statement. In this paper, we analyze the economic benefit of the Powerwall for end-users with respect to various influencing parameters: electricity price, aging characteristics of the batteries, topology of battery system coupling, subsidy schemes, and retrofitting of existing PV systems. Simulations show that three key-factors strongly influence economics: the price gap between electricity price and remuneration rate, the battery system’s investment cost, and the usable battery capacity. We reveal under which conditions a positive return on invest can be achieved and outline that the Powerwall could be a worthwhile investment in multiple, but not all, scenarios investigated. Resulting trends are generally transferrable to other home storage products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Towards an Ultimate Battery Thermal Management System: A Review
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (976 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prevailing standards and scientific literature offer a wide range of options for the construction of a battery thermal management system (BTMS). The design of an innovative yet well-functioning BTMS requires strict supervision, quality audit and continuous improvement of the whole process. It
[...] Read more.
The prevailing standards and scientific literature offer a wide range of options for the construction of a battery thermal management system (BTMS). The design of an innovative yet well-functioning BTMS requires strict supervision, quality audit and continuous improvement of the whole process. It must address all the current quality and safety (Q&S) standards. In this review article, an effective battery thermal management is sought considering the existing battery Q&S standards and scientific literature. The article contains a broad overview of the current existing standards and literature on a generic compliant BTMS. The aim is to assist in the design of a novel compatible BTMS. Additionally, the article delivers a set of recommendations to make an effective BTMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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