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Batteries 2016, 2(2), 14; doi:10.3390/batteries2020014

Economics of Residential Photovoltaic Battery Systems in Germany: The Case of Tesla’s Powerwall

Institute for Electrical Energy Storage Technology, Technical University of Munich (TUM), Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany
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Academic Editor: Maciej Swierczynski
Received: 8 February 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 26 April 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Abstract

Residential photovoltaic (PV) battery systems increase households’ electricity self-consumption using rooftop PV systems and thus reduce the electricity bill. High investment costs of battery systems, however, prevent positive financial returns for most present residential battery installations in Germany. Tesla Motors, Inc. (Palo Alto, CA, USA) announced a novel battery system—the Powerwall—for only about 25% of the current German average market price. According to Tesla’s CEO Elon Musk, Germany is one of the key markets for their product. He has, however, not given numbers to support his statement. In this paper, we analyze the economic benefit of the Powerwall for end-users with respect to various influencing parameters: electricity price, aging characteristics of the batteries, topology of battery system coupling, subsidy schemes, and retrofitting of existing PV systems. Simulations show that three key-factors strongly influence economics: the price gap between electricity price and remuneration rate, the battery system’s investment cost, and the usable battery capacity. We reveal under which conditions a positive return on invest can be achieved and outline that the Powerwall could be a worthwhile investment in multiple, but not all, scenarios investigated. Resulting trends are generally transferrable to other home storage products. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy storage; home storage; lithium-ion; self-consumption; stationary energy storage; storage cost energy storage; home storage; lithium-ion; self-consumption; stationary energy storage; storage cost
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Truong, C.N.; Naumann, M.; Karl, R.C.; Müller, M.; Jossen, A.; Hesse, H.C. Economics of Residential Photovoltaic Battery Systems in Germany: The Case of Tesla’s Powerwall. Batteries 2016, 2, 14.

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