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Batteries 2016, 2(3), 28; doi:10.3390/batteries2030028

Durability and Reliability of Electric Vehicle Batteries under Electric Utility Grid Operations. Part 1: Cell-to-Cell Variations and Preliminary Testing

Hawai‘i Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maciej Swierczynski
Received: 24 May 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Abstract

Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and grid-to-vehicle (G2V) strategies are considered to help stabilize the electric grid but their true impact on battery degradation is still unknown. The intention of this study is to test the impact of such strategies on the degradation of commercial Li-ion batteries. This first part looks into the preliminary testing performed prior to the start of degradation studies to ensure that the selected cells are compatible. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic cell-to-cell variation within the selected batch and the diagnostic-ability of the cells were investigated. The cells were found to have low cell-to-cell variations and are thus consistent. Moreover, the emulation of the full cell from the half-cell data prepared from harvested electrodes was successful and the degradation forecast showed that the main degradation modes can be differentiated. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium-ion; incremental capacity (IC) analysis; dQ/dV; cell-to-cell variations; vehicle-to-grid (V2G); grid-to-vehicle (G2V); smart grid; electric vehicle (EV) lithium-ion; incremental capacity (IC) analysis; dQ/dV; cell-to-cell variations; vehicle-to-grid (V2G); grid-to-vehicle (G2V); smart grid; electric vehicle (EV)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Devie, A.; Dubarry, M. Durability and Reliability of Electric Vehicle Batteries under Electric Utility Grid Operations. Part 1: Cell-to-Cell Variations and Preliminary Testing. Batteries 2016, 2, 28.

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