Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Batteries, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) We use origami to create a compact, scalable 3-D biobattery stack that delivers on-demand energy to [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-16
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Development of an Electro-Thermal Model for Electric Vehicles Using a Design of Experiments Approach
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
PDF Full-text (7261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An accurate and computationally efficient lithium-ion battery model is beneficial when developing state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) algorithms for battery management systems (BMS). These models allow for software-in-the-loop (SIL) and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing, where the battery pack is simulated in software. However, development
[...] Read more.
An accurate and computationally efficient lithium-ion battery model is beneficial when developing state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) algorithms for battery management systems (BMS). These models allow for software-in-the-loop (SIL) and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing, where the battery pack is simulated in software. However, development of these battery models can be time-consuming, especially when trying to model the effects of temperature and SOC on the equivalent circuit model (ECM) parameters. Estimation of this relationship is often accomplished by carrying out many experiments, which can be costly and time consuming for BMS manufacturers. To address these issues, this paper makes two contributions to literature. First, a comprehensive battery model is developed, where the ECM parameter surface is generated using a design of experiments (DOE) approach. Second, replication runs are conducted to accurately estimate the measurement noise and determine which model parameters are significant. The technique is then compared with existing approaches from the literature, and it is shown that, by using the proposed method, the same degree of accuracy can be obtained while requiring significantly fewer experimental runs. This can be advantageous for BMS manufacturers that require a high-fidelity model but cannot afford to carry out many experiments. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Ion Transport in Solvent-Free, Crosslinked, Single-Ion Conducting Polymer Electrolytes for Post-Lithium Ion Batteries
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
PDF Full-text (4154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Solvent-free, single-ion conducting electrolytes are sought after for use in electrochemical energy storage devices. Here, we investigate the ionic conductivity and how this property is influenced by segmental mobility and conducting ion number in crosslinked single-ion conducting polyether-based electrolytes with varying tethered anion
[...] Read more.
Solvent-free, single-ion conducting electrolytes are sought after for use in electrochemical energy storage devices. Here, we investigate the ionic conductivity and how this property is influenced by segmental mobility and conducting ion number in crosslinked single-ion conducting polyether-based electrolytes with varying tethered anion and counter-cation types. Crosslinked electrolytes are prepared by the polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate, and ionic monomers. The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes is measured and interpreted in the context of differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy measurements. A lithiated crosslinked electrolyte prepared with PEG31DA and (4-styrenesulfonyl)(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (STFSI) monomers is found to have a lithium ion conductivity of 3.2 × 10−6 and 1.8 × 10−5 S/cm at 55 and 100 °C, respectively. The percentage of unpaired anions for this electrolyte was estimated at about 23% via Raman spectroscopy. Despite the large variances in metal cation–STFSI binding energies as predicted via density functional theory (DFT) and large variations in ionic conductivity, STFSI-based crosslinked electrolytes with the same charge density and varying cations (Li, Na, K, Mg, and Ca) were estimated to all have unpaired anion populations in the range of 19 to 29%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Post-Lithium Ion Batteries)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCase Report Introduction of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations to University Campuses: A Case Study for the University of Georgia from 2014 to 2017
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
PDF Full-text (4261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming increasingly popular in the United States of America (USA). EVs attract buyers with benefits including energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. As EV usage grows, more public spaces are installing EV charging stations. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis
[...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming increasingly popular in the United States of America (USA). EVs attract buyers with benefits including energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. As EV usage grows, more public spaces are installing EV charging stations. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of EV charging station usage at the University of Georgia (UGA) in Athens, Georgia. Three ChargePoint EV charging stations at UGA were used to collect data about each of 3204 charging events that occurred from 10 April 2014 to 20 June 2017. The charging event data included start date, start time, length of parking time, length of charging time, amount of energy delivered, and the postal code entered by the user during ChargePoint account registration. Analytical methods were proposed to obtain information about EV charging behavior, charging station occupancy, and geolocation of charging station users. The methodology presented here was time- and cost-effective, as well as scalable to other organizations that own charging stations. Because this study took place at a university, the results presented here can be used as a reference for EV charging station usage in other college towns in the USA that do not have EV charging stations but are planning to develop EV infrastructure. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Formation and Stability of Interface between Garnet-Type Ta-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 Solid Electrolyte and Lithium Metal Electrode
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Garnet-type Li7-xLa3Zr2-xTaxO12 (LLZT) is considered a good candidate for the solid electrolyte in all-solid-state lithium batteries because of its reasonably high conductivity around 10−3 S cm−1 at room temperature and stability against
[...] Read more.
Garnet-type Li7-xLa3Zr2-xTaxO12 (LLZT) is considered a good candidate for the solid electrolyte in all-solid-state lithium batteries because of its reasonably high conductivity around 10−3 S cm−1 at room temperature and stability against lithium (Li) metal with the lowest redox potential. In this study, we synthesized LLZT with a tantalum (Ta) content of 0.45 via a conventional solid-state reaction process and constructed a Li/LLZT/Li symmetric cell by attaching Li metal foils on the polished top and bottom surfaces of an LLZT pellet. We investigated the influence of heating temperatures and times on the interfacial charge-transfer resistance between LLZT and the Li metal electrode. In addition, the effect of the interface resistance on the stability for Li deposition and dissolution was examined using a galvanostatic cycling test. The lowest interfacial resistance of 25 Ω cm2 at room temperature was obtained by heating at 175 °C (5 °C lower than the melting point of Li) for three to five hours. We confirmed that the current density at which the short circuit occurs in the Li/LLZT/Li cell via the propagation of Li dendrite into LLZT increases with decreasing interfacial charge transfer resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Post-Lithium Ion Batteries)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Electrochemical Sodiation of Sb Investigated by Operando X-ray Absorption and 121Sb Mössbauer Spectroscopy: What Does One Really Learn?
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, we want to highlight the assets and restrictions of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Mössbauer spectroscopy for investigating the mechanism of the electrochemical reaction of antimony electrode materials vs. Na. For this, operando XAS was carried out during the first
[...] Read more.
In this study, we want to highlight the assets and restrictions of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Mössbauer spectroscopy for investigating the mechanism of the electrochemical reaction of antimony electrode materials vs. Na. For this, operando XAS was carried out during the first one and a half cycles, and the whole set of measured data was analysed using a statistical-chemometric approach, while low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements were carried out ex situ on selected samples stopped at different points of the electrochemical reaction. Complementary ab initio calculations were performed to support the experimental findings. Both techniques show that, upon the first sodiation, most Sb reacts with Na to form disordered Na 3 Sb. This step is accompanied by the formation of amorphous Sb as an intermediate. Upon inversion of the current Na 3 Sb is desodiated and an amorphous Sb phase, distinct from the pristine bulk Sb state, is gradually formed. However, both XAS and Mössbauer spectroscopy were unable to spot the formation of intermediate Na x Sb phases, which were evinced in previous works by operando Pair Distribution Function analyses. The results shown here clearly assign such failure to the intrinsic inability of both techniques to identify these intermediates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sodium-Ion Battery: Materials and Devices)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle High-Yield Preparation of ZnO Nanoparticles on Exfoliated Graphite as Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries and the Effect of Particle Size as well as of Conductivity on the Electrochemical Performance of Such Composites
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
PDF Full-text (3130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The combination of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NP) and graphite provides a promising approach for applications in the field of anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Here, we report a facile and environmentally friendly method yielding uniformly dispersed ZnO particles with a controllable
[...] Read more.
The combination of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NP) and graphite provides a promising approach for applications in the field of anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Here, we report a facile and environmentally friendly method yielding uniformly dispersed ZnO particles with a controllable particle size between 5 and 80 nm, supported by exfoliated graphite (EG) sheets. A thermal post-treatment (420 to 800 °C, N2) of ZnO@EG composite results in high yield with the opportunity for industrial scale-up. The post-treatment leads to growing ZnO particles on the EG sheets, while oxygen is disincorporated from ZnO by the associated carbothermal reduction of ZnO@EG composites above 600 °C and the conductivity is increased. ZnO@EG composite anodes, reduced at 600 °C, show improved Li storage capacity (+25%) and good cycle stability, compared to the EG anode. This can be attributed to the increased conductivity, despite the particle size increased up to 80 nm. Furthermore, we suggest that the mechanism for the reaction of Li+ ions with ZnO@EG-composites including ZnO-particles with an average particle size below 20 nm differs from the classical Li+ ions insertion/de-insertion or alloying process. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Sensing of Temperature and Bi-Directional Strain in a Prismatic Li-Ion Battery
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
PDF Full-text (1688 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermal and pressure stability of Li-ion batteries (LiB) are the most important parameters for safety. In abuse operating conditions, the rapid increase of temperature and pressure can cause the appearance of hot-spots, which may lead to an increasing degradation rate or even to
[...] Read more.
Thermal and pressure stability of Li-ion batteries (LiB) are the most important parameters for safety. In abuse operating conditions, the rapid increase of temperature and pressure can cause the appearance of hot-spots, which may lead to an increasing degradation rate or even to the battery’s explosion and/or combustion. A sensing network of fiber Bragg gratings is attached to the surface of a prismatic LiB to monitor its temperature and bi-directional strain variations through normal charge (0.70 C) and two different discharge rates (1.32 C and 5.77 C) in the x- and y-directions. More significant variations are registered when the LiB operates in abnormal conditions. A maximum temperature variation of 27.52 ± 0.13 °C is detected by the sensors located close to the positive electrode side. Regarding strain and consequent length variations, maximum values of 593.58 ± 0.01 µε and 51.05 ± 0.05 µm are respectively obtained by the sensors placed on the y-direction. The sensing network presented can be a solution for the real-time monitoring, multipoint and in operando temperature and bi-directional strain variations in the LiBs, promoting their safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal and Safety Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Nontrivial Effects of “Trivial” Parameters on the Performance of Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
PDF Full-text (3201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A robust lithium-sulfur (Li–S) battery is constituted by a wide range of optimized fundamental parameters (e.g., amount of electrolyte, electrolyte additive, sulfur loading density, and the size of sulfur particles). In this paper, some other often-neglected “trivial” parameters (including assembly pressure of the
[...] Read more.
A robust lithium-sulfur (Li–S) battery is constituted by a wide range of optimized fundamental parameters (e.g., amount of electrolyte, electrolyte additive, sulfur loading density, and the size of sulfur particles). In this paper, some other often-neglected “trivial” parameters (including assembly pressure of the coil cells, thickness of spring/lithium foil in coin cells, sheet number of separator, and cut-off voltage) of Li–S batteries have been demonstrated to show pronounced effects on the battery performance. Our results indicate that the coin cell assembly pressure and sheet number of the separator play the important roles in suppressing polysulfide shuttling over battery cycling, which improves significantly the cycling life of Li–S batteries. The thickness of springs/lithium foils also affects the battery performance greatly. When switching the cut-off voltage of 1.5–3.0 V to narrower ones (1.7–2.5 V or 1.8–2.6 V), the cycling life of batteries at 0.2 C can be further enhanced to >300 cycles while with no drastic polysulfide shuttling. Adjusting these trivial parameters can thus synergistically improve the cycling performance of Li–S batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Sulfur Batteries)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Local Study of Lithiation and Degradation Paths in LiMn2O4 Battery Cathodes: Confocal Raman Microscopy Approach
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
PDF Full-text (6247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lithium manganese-based cathodes are widely used in rechargeable batteries due to their low cost, safety, and ecological stability. On the other hand, fast capacity fade occurs in LiMn2O4 mainly because of the induced manganese dissolution and formation of additional phases.
[...] Read more.
Lithium manganese-based cathodes are widely used in rechargeable batteries due to their low cost, safety, and ecological stability. On the other hand, fast capacity fade occurs in LiMn2O4 mainly because of the induced manganese dissolution and formation of additional phases. Confocal Raman microscopy provides many opportunities for sensitive and spatially resolved structural studies of micro- and nanoscale phenomena. Here, we demonstrate advantages of confocal Raman spectroscopy approach for uncovering the mechanisms of lithiation/delithiation and degradation in LiMn2O4 commercial cathodes. The analysis of Raman spectra for inspecting local lithiation state and phase composition is proposed and exploited for the visualization of the inhomogeneous distribution of lithium ions. The cycling of cathodes is shown to be followed by the formation and dissolution of the Mn3O4 phase and local disturbance of the lithiation state. These processes are believed to be responsible for the capacity fade in the commercial batteries. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Review of Parameter Determination for Thermal Modeling of Lithium Ion Batteries
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (14428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews different methods for determination of thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are extensively employed for various applications owing to their low memory effect, high specific energy, and power density. One of the problems in the expansion of
[...] Read more.
This paper reviews different methods for determination of thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are extensively employed for various applications owing to their low memory effect, high specific energy, and power density. One of the problems in the expansion of hybrid and electric vehicle technology is the management and control of operation temperatures and heat generation. Successful battery thermal management designs can lead to better reliability and performance of hybrid and electric vehicles. Thermal cycling and temperature gradients could have a considerable impact on the lifetime of lithium ion battery cells. Thermal management is critical in electric vehicles (EVs) and good thermal battery models are necessary to design proper heating and cooling systems. Consequently, it is necessary to determine thermal parameters of a single cell, such as internal resistance, specific heat capacity, entropic heat coefficient, and thermal conductivity in order to design suitable thermal management system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Integration and Operation in Electro-Mobile Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Real-Time Implementation of an Extended Kalman Filter and a PI Observer for State Estimation of Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications—A Case Study
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
PDF Full-text (16811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Li-Ion battery state-of-charge estimation is an essential task in a continuous dynamic automotive industry for large-scale and successful marketing of hybrid electric vehicles. Also, the state-of-charge of any rechargeable battery, regardless of its chemistry, is an essential condition parameter for battery management
[...] Read more.
The Li-Ion battery state-of-charge estimation is an essential task in a continuous dynamic automotive industry for large-scale and successful marketing of hybrid electric vehicles. Also, the state-of-charge of any rechargeable battery, regardless of its chemistry, is an essential condition parameter for battery management systems of hybrid electric vehicles. In this study, we share from our accumulated experience in the control system applications field some preliminary results, especially in modeling, control and state estimation techniques. We investigate the design and effectiveness of two state-of-charge estimators, namely an extended Kalman filter and a proportional integral observer, implemented in a real-time MATLAB environment for a particular Li-Ion battery. Definitely, the aim of this work is to find the most suitable estimator in terms of estimation accuracy and robustness to changes in initial conditions (i.e., the initial guess value of battery state-of-charge) and changes in process and measurement noise levels. By a rigorous performance analysis of MATLAB simulation results, the potential estimator choice is revealed. The performance comparison can be done visually on similar graphs if the information gathered provides a good insight, otherwise, it can be done statistically based on the calculus of statistic errors, in terms of root mean square error, mean absolute error and mean square error. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Integration and Operation in Electro-Mobile Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An In-Situ Reference Electrode Insertion Method for Commercial 18650-Type Cells
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
PDF Full-text (42022 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This work introduces a new method for inserting a Lithium reference electrode into commercially available 18650-type cells in order to obtain electrode potentials during cell operation. The proposed method is simple and requires limited equipment. Furthermore, electrical performance is significantly better and the
[...] Read more.
This work introduces a new method for inserting a Lithium reference electrode into commercially available 18650-type cells in order to obtain electrode potentials during cell operation. The proposed method is simple and requires limited equipment. Furthermore, electrical performance is significantly better and the cell capacity and resistance can be recorded for longer durations when compared to some of the previously used methods. Electrical performance of this new third electrode method is characterized and compared to 18650 cells with no reference electrode inserted. The capacity retention of the modified cell is more than 98% in the first 20 cycles. Harvested electrodes from a disassembled cell were also used to make coin cells that was proven to be a rather critical approach to get electrode potentials and capacities. This is an initial study that shows three-electrode performances of a commercial 18650-type cell, which suggests it could be used for understanding electrode behavior throughout a cell lifetime and for manufacturing instrumented cells. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Flexible and Lightweight Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Cellulose Nanofibrils and Carbon Fibers
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
PDF Full-text (18944 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Flexible, low-weight electrodes with integrated current collectors based on chopped polyacrylonitrile carbon fibers (CF) were produced using an easy, aqueous fabrication process, where only 4 wt% of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were used as the binder. A flexible full cell was assembled based
[...] Read more.
Flexible, low-weight electrodes with integrated current collectors based on chopped polyacrylonitrile carbon fibers (CF) were produced using an easy, aqueous fabrication process, where only 4 wt% of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were used as the binder. A flexible full cell was assembled based on a LiFePO4 (LFP) positive electrode with a CF current collector and a current collector-free CF negative electrode. The cell exhibited a stable specific capacity of 121 mAh g−1 based on the LFP weight. The CF in the negative electrode acted simultaneously as active material and current collector, which has a significant positive impact on energy density. Stable specific capacities of the CF/CNF negative electrode of 267 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and 150 mAh g−1 at 1 C are demonstrated. The LFP/CNF with CF/CNF, as the current collector positive electrode (LFP-CF), exhibited a good rate performance with a capacity of ~150 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and 133 mAh g−1 at 1 C. The polarization of the LFP-CF electrode was similar to that of a commercial Quallion LFP electrode, while much lower compared to a flexible LFP/CNF electrode with Al foil as the current collector. This is ascribed to good contact between the CF and the active material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Paper-based Flexible Batteries)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Fast Thermal Runaway Detection for Lithium-Ion Cells in Large Scale Traction Batteries
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermal runaway of single cells within a large scale lithium-ion battery is a well-known risk that can lead to critical situations if no counter measures are taken in today’s lithium-ion traction batteries for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and
[...] Read more.
Thermal runaway of single cells within a large scale lithium-ion battery is a well-known risk that can lead to critical situations if no counter measures are taken in today’s lithium-ion traction batteries for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The United Nations have published a draft global technical regulation on electric vehicle safety (GTR EVS) describing a safety feature to warn passengers in case of a thermal runaway. Fast and reliable detection of faulty cells undergoing thermal runaway within the lithium-ion battery is therefore a key factor in battery designs for comprehensive passenger safety. A set of various possible sensors has been chosen based on the determined cell thermal runaway impact. These sensors have been tested in different sized battery setups and compared with respect to their ability of fast and reliable thermal runaway detection and their feasibility for traction batteries. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Prognosis and Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery with Optimal Multi-Level Particle Filter and Genetic Algorithm
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
PDF Full-text (2481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prognosis and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation of components and systems (C&S) are vital for intelligent asset-integrity management. The implementation of the traditional multi-level particle filter (TRMPF) has improved prognosis when compared with the one-step traditional particle filter that depended on the first-order
[...] Read more.
Prognosis and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation of components and systems (C&S) are vital for intelligent asset-integrity management. The implementation of the traditional multi-level particle filter (TRMPF) has improved prognosis when compared with the one-step traditional particle filter that depended on the first-order state equation. However, despite this improvement, the need to enhance the accuracy of fault prognosis, diagnosis and detection cannot be overemphasized. To this end, an optimal multi-level particle filter (OPMPF) algorithm that combines genetic algorithm (GA) optimization and multi-level particle filter (MPF) techniques is used to predict the RUL of the C&S in order to enhance the accuracy of the estimation at different forms of deterioration in operation. A 9-fold cross-validation ensemble MPF that utilized lithium-ion (Li+) batteries’ charge capacity decay to test the developed OPMPF algorithm showed an improvement of over 200% in the estimated RUL when compared with the TRMPF estimation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Management Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle On-Demand Micro-Power Generation from an Origami-Inspired Paper Biobattery Stack
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
PDF Full-text (2487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We use origami to create a compact, scalable three-dimensional (3-D) biobattery stack that delivers on-demand energy to the portable biosensors. Folding allows a two-dimensional (2-D) paper sheet possessing predefined functional components to form nine 3-D microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and connect them serially
[...] Read more.
We use origami to create a compact, scalable three-dimensional (3-D) biobattery stack that delivers on-demand energy to the portable biosensors. Folding allows a two-dimensional (2-D) paper sheet possessing predefined functional components to form nine 3-D microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and connect them serially within a small and single unit (5.6 cm × 5.6 cm). We load the biocatalyst Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in predefined areas that form the MFCs, and freeze-dry them for long-term storage. The biobattery stack generates a maximum power and current of 20 μW and 25 μA, respectively, via microbial metabolism when the freeze-dried cells are rehydrated with readily available wastewater. This work establishes an innovative strategy to revolutionize the fabrication, storage, operation, and application of paper-based MFCs, which could potentially make energy available even in resource-limited settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Batteries)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to Top