Special Issue "Thermal Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries"

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2017

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Carlos Ziebert

Head of Battery Calorimeter Laboratory, Thermophysics and Thermodynamics Group, Institute for Applied Materials-Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail
Phone: +49-721/608-22919
Interests: lithium-ion batteries; battery calorimetry; thermal characterization of materials/cells/batteries; safety and thermal management; multiscale electric, electrochemical and thermal modeling of cells and batteries

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The thermal behaviour of (post) lithium-ion batteries and their active materials depend on a large variety of internal and environmental physicochemical parameters, which are still not deeply understood. Additionally, the specific materials’ design and, especially, the use of nanoscale materials influences heat generation and heat dissipation during operation of the electrochemical cells. Therefore, thermal characterization of the cells, batteries and their individual active and passive materials is required, in combination with multiscale electrical electrochemical, thermal and thermodynamic modelling, to obtain quantitative and reliable thermal and thermodynamic data.

This Special Issue addresses all techniques that are needed for such a holistic approach from the materials to the battery level. I want to invite you to publish your original research paper or a review paper in this Special Issue.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Thermal characterization techniques (DSC, DTA, TG, drop solution calorimetry, battery calorimetry, laser flash, hot-plate, thermography, etc.) for materials, cells and batteries
  • Studies on different modes of heat generation
  • Studies on the influence of nanoscale materials on the thermal properties
  • Development of safer materials and cell designs for thermal runaway prevention
  • Studies on the influence of ageing phenomena on thermal properties
  • Thermodynamic Modelling (CALPHAD, kinetic modelling) and database generation
  • Multiscale electric, electrochemical and thermal modelling of batteries
  • Using thermal and thermodynamic data in battery management systems (BMS) and thermal management systems (TMS)

Share your results to get a deeper understanding of the processes that lead to heat generation in cells and batteries, both under normal use and abuse conditions. This will be an important milestone to increase their safety and to fully use their potential, because the thermal data can be used as input data for battery and thermal management systems.

Dr. Carlos Ziebert
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Batteries is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • thermal characterization
  • active and passive materials
  • heat generation and dissipation
  • battery calorimetry
  • safety
  • battery management systems
  • thermal management systems
  • multiscale electric, electrochemical and thermal modelling
  • thermodynamic modelling

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Thermal Characteristics of Conversion-Type FeOF Cathode in Li-ion Batteries
Batteries 2017, 3(4), 33; doi:10.3390/batteries3040033
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Rutile FeOF was used as a conversion-type cathode material for Li-ion batteries. In the present study, 0.6Li, 1.4Li, and 2.7Li per mole lithiation reactions were carried out by changing the electrochemical discharge reaction depth. The thermal characteristics of the FeOF cathode were investigated
[...] Read more.
Rutile FeOF was used as a conversion-type cathode material for Li-ion batteries. In the present study, 0.6Li, 1.4Li, and 2.7Li per mole lithiation reactions were carried out by changing the electrochemical discharge reaction depth. The thermal characteristics of the FeOF cathode were investigated by thermogravimetric mass spectrometric (TG-MS) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) systems. No remarkable HF release was detected, even up to 700 °C, which indicated a low toxic risk for the FeOF cathode. Changes in the thermal properties of the FeOF cathode via different conversion reaction depths in the associated electrolyte were studied by changing the cathode/electrolyte ratio in the mixture. LiFeOF was found to exothermically react with the electrolyte at about 210 °C. Similar exothermic reactions were found with charged FeOF cathodes because of the irreversible Li ions. Among the products of the conversion reaction of FeOF, Li2O was found to exothermically react with the electrolyte at about 120 °C, which induced the main thermal risk of the FeOF cathode. It suggests that the oxygen-containing conversion-type cathodes have a higher thermal risk than the oxygen-free ones, but controlling the cathode/electrolyte ratio in cells successfully reduced the thermal risk. Finally, the thermal stability of the FeOF cathode was evaluated in comparison with FeF3 and LiFePO4 cathodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Experimental Analysis of Thermal Runaway in 18650 Cylindrical Li-Ion Cells Using an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter
Batteries 2017, 3(2), 14; doi:10.3390/batteries3020014
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2745 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, commercial 18650 lithium-ion cells with LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, and Li(Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33)O2 cathodes were exposed to external heating in an accelerating rate calorimeter (es-ARC, Thermal Hazard Technology (THT), Bletchley, UK),
[...] Read more.
In this work, commercial 18650 lithium-ion cells with LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, and Li(Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33)O2 cathodes were exposed to external heating in an accelerating rate calorimeter (es-ARC, Thermal Hazard Technology (THT), Bletchley, UK), to investigate the thermal behavior under abuse conditions. New procedures for measuring the external and internal pressure change of cells were developed. The external pressure was measured utilizing a gas-tight cylinder inside the calorimeter chamber, in order to detect the venting of the cells. For internal pressure measurements, a pressure line connected to a pressure transducer was directly inserted into the cell. During the thermal runaway experiments, three stages (low rate, medium rate, and high rate reactions) were observed. Both the pressure and temperature change indicated different stages of exothermic reactions, which produced gases or/and heat. The onset temperature of the thermal runaway was estimated according to the temperature and pressure changes. Moreover, the different activation energies for the exothermic reactions could be derived from Arrhenius plots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Test Method for Thermal Characterization of Li-Ion Cells and Verification of Cooling Concepts
Batteries 2017, 3(1), 3; doi:10.3390/batteries3010003
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 26 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Temperature gradients, thermal cycling and temperatures outside the optimal operation range can have a significant influence on the reliability and lifetime of Li-ion battery cells. Therefore, it is essential for the developer of large-scale battery systems to know the thermal characteristics, such as
[...] Read more.
Temperature gradients, thermal cycling and temperatures outside the optimal operation range can have a significant influence on the reliability and lifetime of Li-ion battery cells. Therefore, it is essential for the developer of large-scale battery systems to know the thermal characteristics, such as heat source location, heat capacity and thermal conductivity, of a single cell in order to design appropriate cooling measures. This paper describes an advanced test facility, which allows not only an estimation of the thermal properties of a battery cell, but also the verification of proposed cooling strategies in operation. To do this, an active measuring unit consisting of a temperature and heat flux density sensor and a Peltier element was developed. These temperature/heat flux sensing (THFS) units are uniformly arranged around a battery cell with a spatial resolution of 25 mm. Consequently, the temperature or heat flux density can be controlled individually, thus forming regions with constant temperature (cooling) or zero heat flux (insulation). This test setup covers the whole development loop from thermal characterization to the design and verification of the proposed cooling strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries)
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